Optical intrinsic signal (OIS) imaging has been a powerful tool for capturing functional brain hemodynamics in rodents. Recent wide field-of-view implementations of OIS have provided efficient maps of functional connectivity from spontaneous brain activity in mice. However, OIS requires scalp retraction and is limited to superficial cortical tissues. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) techniques provide noninvasive imaging, but previous DOT systems for rodent neuroimaging have been limited either by sparse spatial sampling or by slow speed. Here, we develop a DOT system with asymmetric source–detector sampling that combines the high-density spatial sampling (0.4 mm) detection of a scientific complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera with the rapid (2 Hz) imaging of a few (<50) structured illumination (SI) patterns. Analysis techniques are developed to take advantage of the system’s flexibility and optimize trade-offs among spatial sampling, imaging speed, and signal-to-noise ratio. An effective source–detector separation for the SI patterns was developed and compared with light intensity for a quantitative assessment of data quality. The light fall-off versus effective distance was also used for in situ empirical optimization of our light model. We demonstrated the feasibility of this technique by noninvasively mapping the functional response in the somatosensory cortex of the mouse following electrical stimulation of the forepaw.