The full complex, spatial modulation of light at high frame rates is essential for a variety of applications. In particular, emerging techniques applied to scattering media, such as Digital Optical Phase Conjugation and Wavefront Shaping, request challenging performance parameters. They refer to imaging tasks inside biological media, whose characteristics concerning the transmission and reflection of scattered light may change over time within milliseconds. Thus, these methods call for frame rates in the kilohertz range. Existing solutions typically over frame rate capabilities below 100 Hz, since they rely on liquid crystal spatial light modulators (SLMs). We propose a diffractive MEMS optical system for this application range. It relies on an analog, tilt-type micro mirror array (MMA) based on an established SLM technology, where the standard application is grayscale amplitude control. The new MMA system design allows the phase manipulation at high-speed as well.<p> </p>The article studies properties of the appropriate optical setup by simulating the propagation of the light. Relevant test patterns and sensitivity parameters of the system will be analyzed. Our results illustrate the main opportunities of the concept with particular focus on the tilt mirror technology. They indicate a promising path to realize the complex light modulation at frame rates above 1 kHz and resolutions well beyond 10,000 complex pixels.
This paper presents the application of a real-time closed-loop control for the quasistatic axis of electrostatic micro scanning mirrors. In comparison to resonantly driven mirrors, the quasistatic comb drive allows arbitrary motion profiles with frequencies up to its eigenfrequency. A current mirror setup at Fraunhofer IPMS is manufactured with a staggered vertical comb (SVC) drive and equipped with an integrated piezo-resistive deflection sensor, which can potentially be used as position feedback sensor. The control design is accomplished based on a nonlinear mechatronic system model and the preliminary parameter characterization. In previous papers [1, 2] we have shown that jerk-limited trajectories, calculated offline, provide a suitable method for parametric trajectory design, taking into account physical limitations given by the electrostatic comb and thus decreasing the dynamic requirements. The open-loop control shows in general unfavorable residual eigenfrequency oscillations leading to considerable tracking errors for desired triangle trajectories . With real-time closed-loop control, implemented on a dSPACE system using an optical feedback, we can significantly reduce these errors and stabilize the mirror motion against external disturbances. In this paper we compare linear and different nonlinear closed-loop control strategies as well as two observer variants for state estimation. Finally, we evaluate the simulation and experimental results in terms of steady state accuracy and the concept feasibility for a low-cost realization.
The present study analyses three beam shaping approaches with respect to a light-efficient generation of i) patterns and ii) multiple spots by means of a generic optical 4f-setup. 4f approaches share the property that due to the one-to-one relationship between output intensity and input phase, the need for time-consuming, iterative calculation can be avoided. The resulting low computational complexity offers a particular advantage compared to the widely used holographic principles and makes them potential candidates for real-time applications. The increasing availability of high-speed phase modulators, e.g. on the basis of MEMS, calls for an evaluation of the performances of these concepts. <p> </p>Our second interest is the applicability of 4f methods to high-power applications. We discuss the variants of 4f intensity shaping by phase modulation from a system-level point of view which requires the consideration of application relevant boundary conditions. The discussion includes i) the micro mirror based phase manipulation combined with amplitude masking in the Fourier plane, ii) the Generalized Phase Contrast, and iii) matched phase-only correlation filtering combined with GPC. The conceptual comparison relies on comparative figures of merit for energy efficiency, pattern homogeneity, pattern image quality, maximum output intensity and flexibility with respect to the displayable pattern. Numerical simulations illustrate our findings.