Precise navigation is an important task in robot-assisted and minimally invasive surgery. The need for optical markers and a lack of distinct anatomical features on skin or organs complicate tissue tracking with commercial tracking systems. Previous work has shown the feasibility of a 3D optical coherence tomography based system for this purpose. Furthermore, convolutional neural networks have been proven to precisely detect shifts between volumes. However, most experiments have been performed with phantoms or ex-vivo tissue. We introduce an experimental setup and perform measurements on perfused and non-perfused (dead) tissue of in-vivo xenograft tumors. We train 3D siamese deep learning models and evaluate the precision of the motion prediction. The network's ability to predict shifts for different motion magnitudes and also the performance for the different volume axes are compared. The root-mean-square errors are 0:12mm and 0:08mm on perfused and non-perfused tumor tissue, respectively.
Proc. SPIE. 10951, Medical Imaging 2019: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling
KEYWORDS: Real time imaging, Detection and tracking algorithms, Imaging systems, Optical coherence tomography, Navigation systems, Optical tracking, Medical imaging applications, Digital image correlation and tracking
Clinical tracking systems are popular but typically require specific tracking markers. During the last years, scanning speed of optical coherence tomography (OCT) has increased to A-scan rates above 1MHz allowing to acquire volume scans of moving objects. Therefore, we propose a markerless tracking system based on OCT to obtain small volumetric images including information of sub-surface structures at high spatio-temporal resolution. In contrast to conventional vision based approaches, this allows identifying natural landmarks even for smooth and homogeneous surfaces. We describe the optomechanical setup and process ow to evaluate OCT volumes for translations and accordingly adjust the position of the field-of-view to follow moving samples. While our current setup is still preliminary, we demonstrate tracking of motion transversal to the OCT beam of up to 20mms1 with errors around 0:2mm and even better for some scenarios. Tracking is evaluated on a clearly structured and on a homogeneous phantom as well as on actual tissue samples. The results show that OCT is promising for fast and precise tracking of smooth, monochromatic objects in medical scenarios.
Automatic motion compensation and adjustment of an intraoperative imaging modality's field of view is a common problem during interventions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality which is used in interventions due to its high spatial resolution of few micrometers and its temporal resolution of potentially several hundred volumes per second. However, performing motion compensation with OCT is problematic due to its small field of view which might lead to tracked objects being lost quickly. We propose a novel deep learning-based approach that directly learns input parameters of motors that move the scan area for motion compensation from optical coherence tomography volumes. We design a two-path 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture that takes two volumes with an object to be tracked as its input and predicts the necessary motor input parameters to compensate the object's movement. In this way, we learn the calibration between object movement and system parameters for motion compensation with arbitrary objects. Thus, we avoid error-prone hand-eye calibration and handcrafted feature tracking from classical approaches. We achieve an average correlation coefficient of 0:998 between predicted and ground-truth motor parameters which leads to sub-voxel accuracy. Furthermore, we show that our deep learning model is real-time capable for use with the system's high volume acquisition frequency.
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a tracer-based tomographic non-ionizing imaging method providing fully three-dimensional spatial information at a high temporal resolution without any limitation in penetration depth. One challenge for current preclinical MPI systems is its modest spatial resolution in the range of 1 mm - 5 mm. Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IVOCT) on the other hand, has a very high spatial and temporal resolution, but it does not provide an accurate 3D positioning of the IVOCT images. In this work, we will show that MPI and OCT can be combined to reconstruct an accurate IVOCT volume. A center of mass trajectory is estimated from the MPI data as a basis to reconstruct the poses of the IVOCT images. The feasibility of bimodal IVOCT and MPI imaging is demonstrated with a series of 3D printed vessel phantoms.