The development of commercial portable lab-on-chip (LOC) applications based on optical detection is hindered by the
lack of imaging systems that can be directly integrated into the chip itself. Currently, fluorescence/luminescence signals
are read out with power-hungry, bulky and expensive off-chip imaging systems, like CCD cameras or photomultiplier
tubes. Here we present an enabling technology that for the first time allows cheap and easy integration of imaging
systems directly into disposable lab-on-chip systems. Our technology is based on organic semiconductor materials that
can be processed in liquid form by inkjet printing, in a process much faster and cheaper than the complicated fabrication
of silicon-based imaging sensors. Organic photosensors can be printed on various substrate materials like plastic foil or
glass or directly onto lab-on-chip systems. The ultrathin photodiodes with an overall thickness of only 300 to 500 nm
show quantum efficiencies better than 0.5 and linear light-response over 6 orders of magnitude. The pixel size can range
from 50 to over 1000 μm and inkjet fabrication allows tailoring the sensor layout to the needs of the specific application.
Genomic research is nowadays based on high throughput analytical techniques. Microarray assays are commonly used to determine DNA content of heterogeneous mixtures up to full genome scale. For low amounts of sample material this method, however, requires time consuming and error prone PCR based amplification steps. Here, we present an assay with the ability to characterize the cDNA content of a low number of cells using ultra-sensitive fluorescence microscopy.
For detection, a newly developed chip reader was used. The instrument is based on a modified fluorescence microscope with single dye sensitivity. The highly sensitive CCD detector is operated in TDI mode, which allows avoiding overhead times for sample positioning and signal integration. This enabled the scanning of areas of 1x0.2cm<sup>2</sup> within 50 seconds at a pixel size of 200nm. At this resolution, single dye molecules can be reliably detected with an average signal to background noise ratio of ~42. For DNA hybridization experiments, oligonucleotides were covalently linked to a newly developed aldehyde surface. Subsequently, fluorescence labeled complementary oligonucleotides were hybridized at various concentrations. Down to femto-molar oligonucleotide concentrations, specific signals were detected. At 10fM concentration signals of individual specifically hybridized oligonucleotide molecules were resolvable. This assay provides the conceptual basis for expression profiling of low amounts of sample material without signal amplification.
We report on the application of a novel fluorescence-microscope based scanning device with single molecule sensitivity to microarray readout. The device is based on a CCD camera operated in time delay and integration (TDI) mode synchronized with the movement of a sample scanning stage, enabling continuous data acquisition. The implementation of a focus hold system keeps the sample in focus during scanning. Results from ultra-sensitive high-resolution microarray readout provide clear evidence for the superiority of the novel detection method over conventional microarray readout systems in particular regarding to sensitivity and dynamic range. Minute sample amount and lacking amplification methods will demand for this ultra-sensitive readout technology in future genomic and proteomic research.