Since the emergence of laser and henceforth laser remote sensing in the 1960's, lidar (light detecting and ranging)
technology has became a significant tool for the detection of various phenomena like wind direction and intensity,
atmospheric temperature, urban and rural topography, forest fires, ocean planktonic development, and detection of
various constituants such as tropospheric aerosols, stratospheric ozone, trace chemicals and etc.
In 2009, a homemade multiwavelength Raman aerosol lidar (named MRC K09) was designed, developed and installed in
the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Marmara Research Center (MRC), and since
21 February 2011, it has been accepted to EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network). Since 2009, aerosol
spatio-temporal distribution and microphysical properties have been investigated in the extremely industrialized vicinity
[1,2]. MRC K09 lidar uses a Quantel Brilliant B Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) with the second and third optical harmonics at
532 and 355 nm, and a homemade Newtonian 40 cm aperture 120 cm focal length telescope. It has 7 channel spectrum
analyzer detecting: parallel and perpendicular polarizations at 355 nm, elastic signals at 532 and 1064 nm, Raman signal
of molecular nitrogen at 387 nm and Raman signal of water vapor at 408 nm (excited with 355 laser line), and Raman
signal for molecular nitrogen at 608 nm (excited with 532 nm laser line).
In Spring 2010, preliminary applications for the determination of forest tree species and of forest health in the Black Sea
Area using an aeroborne lidar in collaboration with Bartin University, Bartin, Turkey have been made. In early 2011, a
fluorescence module utilizing a Princeton Instruments PI-MAX3 1024x256 resolution CCD camera with a Princeton
Instruments Acton SP 2500 0.500 m Imaging Triple Grating Monochromator/Spectograph was connected to the MRC
K09 lidar system, and the first remote measurements of chlorophyll from different types of trees were made. Figure 1
demonstrates the results of these measurements, which must be considered as preliminary and in the future, the
measurements can be carried out by the lidar mounted on an aircraft to cover large spatial areas.
One of the most important reasons for biodiversity loss, habitat loss and fragmentation can be monitored in large areas
by aeroborne lidars and therefore the extent of the situation can be accessed precisely, faster and more efficiently. This
paper aims to give a brief overview to show the possibility of detecting the detailed situations of the habitats on terrain
surfaces using lidar technology by summarizing the successful examples which have been realized thus far in different
types of ecosystems like savannas, forest and grasslands.
Aerosols affect the radiation budget of the Earth by scattering and absorbing the incoming solar radiation, and by acting
as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to form clouds and/or change their properties. Because of their high spatio-temporal
variability and remote nature, investigations of aerosols physical properties have been rather limited until the last few
decades. Lately, multiwavelength Raman lidars became an important tool for the measurements of aerosol physical
parameters. Such lidars allow to get three aerosol backscattering and two extinction coefficients (so called 3β+2α) and
from these optical data the particle microphysical parameters such as number, surface area and volume concentrations,
effective radius, particle size distribution, particle and volume polarizations and complex refractive index can be
retrieved through inversion with regularization, principle component analysis and linear estimation techniques.
During 2009-2011, using a homemade multiwavelength Raman lidar with a Quantel BrilliantB Nd:YAG laser
generating also the 2nd and the 3rd optical harmonics, the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols and their
microphysical properties have been measured and evaluated in various seasons, meteorological conditions and with
different horizontal measurement angles. Reliability of our results have been confirmed with the synergistic
measurements done with lidars located in Greece, the EUFAR aircraft (European Facility for Airborne Research,
FAAM-Bae146 aircraft), ACEMED campaign (Evaluation of CALIPSO’s (Cloud-aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder
Satellite Observation) aerosol classificatiomn scheme over Eastern Mediterranean) and GOSAT (Global Greenhouse
Gas Observation by Satellite project).
In early 2012, the addition of the scanning module mounted on the top of the telescope, allowed to obtain information
about the aerosol distribution within fixed and regular time intervals in a given time frame and from various
measurement angles, and thus it made possible to cover a large spatial area and to evaluate the changes in the aerosol
microphysical properties in space and time. It uses Newport ESP301 Motion Controller allowing to make measurements
in 340° azimuthal and ± 15° vertical scanning angles by a 300 x 600 mm plane mirror. In this paper, the description of
the new multiwavelength aerosol lidar scanning system installed in the Scientific and Technological Research Council of
Turkey (TUBITAK) Marmara Research Center (MRC), KA09 Laser and Lidar Laboratory is explained, and the first
results obtained from the data acquired during Spring and Summer 2012 are presented by integrating the results with a
geographical map of Gebze Area.