To extend scaling beyond poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) for directed self-assembly (DSA), high quality organic high-x block copolymers (HC series) were developed and applied to implementation of sub-10 nm L/S DSA. Lamellae-forming block copolymers (BCPs) of the HC series showed the ability to form vertically oriented polymer domains conveniently with the in-house PS-r-PMMA underlayers (AZEMBLY EXP NLD series) without the use of an additional topcoat. The orientation control was achieved with low bake temperatures (≤200 °C) and short bake times (≤5 min). Also, these process-friendly materials are compatible with existing 193i-based graphoepitaxy and chemoepitaxy DSA schemes. In addition, it is notable that 8.5 nm organic lamellae domains were amenable to pattern development by simple dry etch techniques. These successful demonstrations of high-x L/S DSA on 193i-defined guiding patterns and pattern development can offer a feasible route to access sub-10 nm node patterning technology.
Proc. SPIE. 9423, Alternative Lithographic Technologies VII
KEYWORDS: Electron beam lithography, Polymethylmethacrylate, Etching, Image segmentation, Composites, Scanning electron microscopy, Photomasks, Directed self assembly, Picosecond phenomena, System on a chip
Diminishing error tolerance renders the customization of patterns created through directed self-assembly (DSA) extremely challenging at tighter pitch. A self-aligned customization scheme can be achieved using a hybrid prepattern comprising both organic and inorganic regions that serves as a guiding prepattern to direct the self-assembly of the block copolymers as well as a cut mask pattern for the DSA arrays aligned to it. In this paper, chemoepitaxy-based self-aligned customization is demonstrated using two types of organic-inorganic prepatterns. CHEETAH prepattern for “CHemoepitaxy Etch Trim using a self-Aligned Hardmask” of preferential hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ, inorganic resist), non-preferential organic underlayer is fabricated using electron beam lithography. Customized trench or hole arrays can be achieved through co-transfer of DSA-formed arrays and CHEETAH prepattern. Herein, we also introduce a tone-reversed version called reverse-CHEETAH (or rCHEETAH) in which customized line segments can be achieved through co-transfer of DSA-formed arrays formed on a prepattern wherein the inorganic HSQ regions are nonpreferential and the organic regions are PMMA preferential. Examples of two-dimensional self-aligned customization including 25nm pitch fin structures and an 8-bar “IBM” illustrate the versatility of this customization scheme using rCHEETAH.
We continue to study the feasibility of using Directed Self Assembly (DSA) in extending optical lithography for High
Volume Manufacturing (HVM). We built test masks based on the mask datatprep flow we proposed in our prior year’s
publication . Experimental data on circuit-relevant fin and via patterns based on 193nm graphoepitaxial DSA are
demonstrated on 300mm wafers. With this computational lithography (CL) flow we further investigate the basic
requirements for full-field capable DSA lithography. The first issue is on DSA-specific defects which can be either
random defects due to material properties or the systematic DSA defects that are mainly induced by the variations of the
guiding patterns (GP) in 3 dimensions. We focus in studying the latter one. The second issue is the availability of fast
DSA models to meet the full-chip capability requirements in different CL component’s need. We further developed
different model formulations that constitute the whole spectrum of models in the DSA CL flow. In addition to the
Molecular Dynamic/Monte Carlo (MD/MC) model and the compact models we discussed before , we implement a 2D
phenomenological phase field model by solving the Cahn-Hilliard type of equation that provide a model that is more
predictive than compact model but much faster then the physics-based MC model. However simplifying the model might
lose the accuracy in prediction especially in the z direction so a critical question emerged: Can a 2D model be useful fro
full field? Using 2D and 3D simulations on a few typical constructs we illustrate that a combination of 2D mode with
pre-characterized 3D litho metrics might be able to approximate the prediction of 3D models to satisfy the full chip
runtime requirement. Finally we conclude with the special attentions we have to pay in the implementation of 193nm
based lithography process using DSA.
The first fully integrated SOI device using 42nm-pitch directed self-assembly (DSA) process for fin formation has been demonstrated in a 300mm pilot line environment. Two major issues were observed and resolved in the fin formation process. The cause of the issues and process optimization are discussed. The DSA device shows comparable yield with slight short channel degradation which is a result of a large fin CD when compared to the devices made by baseline process. LER/LWR analysis through the DSA process implied that the 42nm-pitch DSA process may not have reached the thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we also show preliminary results from using scatterometry to detect DSA defects before removing one of the blocks in BCP.
EUV insertion timing for High Volume Manufacturing is still an uncertainty due to source power and EUV mask infrastructure limitations. Directed Self Assembly (DSA) processes offer the promise of providing alternative ways to extend optical lithography cost-effectively for use in the 10nm node and beyond. The goal of this paper is to look into the technical prospect of DSA technology, particularly in the computational and DFM area. We have developed a prototype computational patterning toolset in-house to enable an early Design –Technology Co-Optimization to study the feasibility of using DSA in patterning semiconductor devices and circuits. From this toolset we can identify the set of DSA specific design restrictions specific to a DSA process and plan to develop a novel full chip capable computational patterning solution with DSA. We discuss the DSA Computational Lithography (CL) infrastructure using the via and fin layers as examples. Early wafer data is collected from the DSA testmask that was built using these new toolsets. Finally we discuss the DSA ecosystem requirements for enabling DSA lithography and propose how EDA vendors can play a role in making DSA Lithography (DSAL) a full-chip viable technology for multiple process layers.
The patterning capability of the directed self-assembly (DSA) of a 42nm-pitch block copolymer on
an 84nm-pitch guiding pattern was investigated in a 300mm pilot line environment. The chemoepitaxy
guiding pattern was created by the IBM Almaden approach using brush materials in
combination with an optional chemical slimming of the resist lines. Critical dimension (CD)
uniformity, line-edge/line-width roughness (LER/LWR), and lithographic process window (PW) of
the DSA process were characterized. CD rectification and LWR reduction were observed. The
chemical slimming process was found to be effective in reducing pattern collapse, hence, slightly
improving the DSA PW under over-dose conditions. However, the overall PW was found to be
smaller than without using the slimming, due to a new failure mode at under-dose region.
The main concern for the commercialization of directed self-assembly (DSA) for semiconductor manufacturing
continues to be the uncertainty in capability and control of defect density. Our research investigates the defect densities
of various DSA process applications in the context of a 300mm wafer fab cleanroom environment; this paper expands
substantially on the previously published DSA defectivity study by reporting a defect density process window relative
to chemical epitaxial pre-pattern registration lines; as well as investigated DSA based contact hole shrinking and report
critical dimension statistics for the phase separated polymers before and after etch, along with positional accuracy
measurements and missing via defect density.
A photomask design flow for generating guiding patterns used in graphoepitaxial DSA processes is proposed and tested. In this flow, a new fast DSA model is employed for DSA structure verification. The execution speed and accuracy of the fast model were benchmarked with our previously reported Monte Carlo method. We demonstrated the process window verification using the OPC/DSA flow with the fast DSA model and compared this with experimental results in the guiding patterns simulated by e-beam lithography.
Directed self-assembly is an emerging technology that to-date has been primarily driven by research efforts in university
and corporate laboratory environments. Through these environments, we have seen many promising demonstrations of
forming self-assembled structures with small half pitch (<15 nm), registration control, and various device-oriented
shapes. Now, the attention turns to integrating these capabilities into a 300mm pilot fab, which can study directed selfassembly
in the context of a semiconductor fabrication environment and equipment set. The primary aim of this study is
to create a 300mm baseline process of record using a 12nm half-pitch PS-b-PMMA lamellae block copolymer in order to
establish an initial measurement of the defect density due to inherent polymer phase separation defects such as
dislocations and disclinations.