We present 40 Gbit/s optical modulators based on different types of phase shifters (lateral pn, pipin, and interleaved pn junction phase). Those structures were processed both on 200 and 300mm SOI wafers, available in large-scale microelectronic foundries. Both Ring Resonators (RR) and Mach Zehnder (MZ) modulators were fabricated. As an example, MZ modulator based on 0.95 mm long interleaved pn junction phase shifter delivered a high ER of 7.8 dB at 40 Gbit/s with low optical loss of only 4 dB. Ring modulator was also fabricated and characterized at high-speed, exhibiting 40 Gbit/s.
The silicon optical modulator is a key element in the advancement to meet the continuous demand on larger capacity of
data transmission through optical interconnects, where the transmitted signal is required to have very low loss and large
bandwidth. We present the experimental results of an all-silicon optical modulator based on carrier depletion in a lateral
PIPIN diode. By embedding a p-doped slit in the intrinsic region of the PIN diode, the best compromise between
effective index variation and optical loss in the middle of the waveguide is obtained. The PIPIN diode design guarantees
a reduction of optical loss because large part of the waveguide is left unintentionally doped. Additionally, self-aligned
fabrication was used to have an exact alignment of the active region, and to guarantee maximum modulation efficiency.
At 40 Gb/s, the modulator delivered a 6.6 dB extinction ratio, with a 6 dB insertion loss at the operation point.
We present first experimental results of a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on carrier depletion in interleaved
PN junctions oriented in the waveguide direction. The modulator is integrated in a ring resonator of radius 50 μm. The
modulator is characterized using a laser beam at 1.55 μm for TE and TM polarizations, and extinction ratios as high as
11 dB and 10 dB in in TE- and TM-polarizations, respectively, obtained between 0 and -10 V. At 10 Gbit/s extinction
ratios of 4.1 dB and 2.7 dB for TE- and TM-polarization, respectively, are experimentally demonstrated.
We present the experimental results of an error-free high-speed silicon optical modulator based on carrier depletion in a
lateral 1.8 mm-long PIPIN diode embedded in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. At 10 Gbit/s, the silicon optical
modulator provides a large extinction ratio of 8.1 dB simultaneously with a low optical loss of 6 dB. The silicon
modulator is a key element required to build and integrate photonic high performance data links.
The HELIOS project is a European funded program which focuses on the development and
integration of the different photonic and electronic building block components required to form high
performance photonic circuits with a variety of functionality. One of the key photonic building block
components central to most photonic applications is the optical modulator which is required to write
data onto an optical carrier. Within the project two designs of carrier depletion based phase
modulator are under development, together with a means of enhancing the modulation effect using
slow wave and ring resonator based structures. In this work modulation results from the two phase
shifters are presented along with passive results from related slow wave and resonator structures.