The escalating costs of lithography for the sub 90nm regime have been well documented. The semiconductor industry is exploring evolutionary improvements to existing photolithographic techniques as well as disruptive, but cost effective patterning technologies for the demanding high-resolution requirements.
Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL) is an innovative patterning technology commercialized by Molecular Imprints. S-FIL has demonstrated the capability to pattern very high-resolution features and has been recognized as an NGL candidate by inclusion on the ITRS Roadmap in December 2003. This paper describes the S-FIL process and examines its comparative cost of ownership relative to conventional photolithography at the 90nm node and to immersion photolithography at the 65nm node for patterning contacts and dual damascene.
Stimulated emission in InAs/InGaSb/InAs/AlSb type-II quantum- well (QW) lasers was observed up to room temperature at 4.5 micrometer, optically pumped by a pulsed 2-micrometer Tm:YAG laser. The absorbed threshold peak pump intensity was only 1.1 kW/cm2 at 300 K, with a characteristic temperature T0 of 61.6 K for temperatures up to 300 K. We have also studied another type-II QW laser using 0.808-micrometer pumping sources with a much longer pulse length of 50 microseconds. The devices demonstrated a maximum output power of 1.6 W per facet at 83 K, with a corresponding differential external quantum efficiency of 24.8%.