Proc. SPIE. 9786, Medical Imaging 2016: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling
KEYWORDS: Visualization, Cameras, Magnetic resonance imaging, Image registration, Data acquisition, Light sources and illumination, Skull, Medical devices, Rigid registration, Algorithm development, New and emerging technologies
The high costs associated with technological innovation have been previously identified as both a major contributor to the rise of health care expenses, and as a limitation for widespread adoption of new technologies. In this work we evaluate the use of two consumer grade depth cameras, the Microsoft Kinect v1 and 3DSystems Sense, as a means for acquiring point clouds for registration. These devices have the potential to replace professional grade laser range scanning devices in medical interventions that do not require sub-millimetric registration accuracy, and may do so at a significantly reduced cost. To facilitate the use of these devices we have developed a near real-time (1-4 sec/frame) rigid registration framework combining several alignment heuristics with the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Using nearest neighbor registration error as our evaluation criterion we found the optimal scanning distances for the Sense and Kinect to be 50-60cm and 70-80cm respectively. When imaging a skull phantom at these distances, RMS error values of 1.35mm and 1.14mm were obtained. The registration framework was then evaluated using cranial MR scans of two subjects. For the first subject, the RMS error using the Sense was 1.28 ± 0.01 mm. Using the Kinect this error was 1.24 ± 0.03 mm. For the second subject, whose MR scan was significantly corrupted by metal implants, the errors increased to 1.44 ± 0.03 mm and 1.74 ± 0.06 mm but the system nonetheless performed within acceptable bounds.
In minimally invasive surgical interventions direct visualization of the target area is often not available. Instead, clinicians rely on images from various sources, along with surgical navigation systems for guidance. These spatial localization and tracking systems function much like the Global Positioning Systems (GPS) that we are all well familiar with. In this work we demonstrate how the video feed from a typical camera, which could mimic a laparoscopic or endoscopic camera used during an interventional procedure, can be used to identify the pose of the camera with respect to the viewed scene and augment the video feed with computer-generated information, such as rendering of internal anatomy not visible beyond the imaged surface, resulting in a simple augmented reality environment. This paper describes the software and hardware environment and methodology for augmenting the real world with virtual models extracted from medical images to provide enhanced visualization beyond the surface view achieved using traditional imaging. Following intrinsic and extrinsic camera calibration, the technique was implemented and demonstrated using a LEGO structure phantom, as well as a 3D-printed patient-specific left atrial phantom. We assessed the quality of the overlay according to fiducial localization, fiducial registration, and target registration errors, as well as the overlay offset error. Using the software extensions we developed in conjunction with common webcams it is possible to achieve tracking accuracy comparable to that seen with significantly more expensive hardware, leading to target registration errors on the order of 2 mm.