In quantum optics experiments, heralding, a form of conditional state preparation, is a useful tool for creating photon-number states from nonlinear optical sources for quantum-information science experiments. Heralding occurs when one photon from a correlated pair is detected to herald the presence of the other photon, labeled the signal photon. However, as heralding is extended to two or more photon pairs, the presence of noise photons in the herald channel quickly degrades the photon statistics of the signal photons. We create two-photon number states from a non-degenerate, third-order nonlinear optical fiber source with double heralding and present a method for verifying these photon-number states. The consequences of noisy heralding on the statistics of states created via third-order nonlinear processes are analyzed. We present a method for estimating the effects of noise photons on the signal photon statistics. Additionally, we prove the equivalence between noise in the herald channel and a loss in the signal channel. We utilize this equivalence to infer the photon statistics of the photon-number states in the signal channel that would be present in the absence of noise in the herald channel. By measuring the statistics of the signal channels with noise in the herald channel and comparing to the inferred, noise-free distribution, we can estimate the potential benefits of additional noise-reducing procedures on the experiment.
James Clerk Maxwell unknowingly discovered a correct relativistic, quantum theory for the light quantum, forty-three years before Einstein postulated the photon's existence. In this theory, the usual Maxwell field is the quantum wave function for a single photon. When the non-operator Maxwell field of a single photon is second quantized, the standard Dirac theory of quantum optics is obtained. Recently, quantum-state tomography has been applied to experimentally determine photon wave functions.
We demonstrate phase space tomography for the measurement of the transversal spatial coherence function of light after propagation through a scattering medium. The results of this approach are compared to measurements performed with shearing-interferometry. Implications for parallel Optical Coherence Tomography will be briefly discussed.
The transverse spatial coherence of light evolves as the light traverses a random, multiple-scattering medium. For near- forward scattering, the wave-transport process can be described by a wave-transport equation for the spatial-angular Wigner function of the light, which is related to the spatial coherence function. Using a novel variable-shear Sagnac interferometer, we measured the Wigner function of initially coherent light after propagation through a multiple-scattering medium. We find good agreement between the wave-transport theory and the experimental results.
The transverse spatial coherence of light evolves as the light transverses a random, multiple-scattering medium. For near-forward scattering, the wave-transport process can be described by a wave-transport equation for the spatial- angular Wigner function of the light, which is related to the spatial coherence function. Using a novel variable-shear Sagnac interferometer, we measured the Wigner function of initially coherent light after propagation through a multiple-scattering medium. We find good agreement between the wave-transport theory and the experimental results.
We describe an optical detection system for simultaneous time- and frequency-resolved measurements: the Balanced-Homodyne Chronocyclic Spectrometer (chrono equals time; cyclic equals frequency). This system uses balanced, optical homodyne detection, with a wavelength- tunable, pulsed local-oscillator (LO) field to time resolve the spectrum of weak light pulses. The LO field defines the time and frequency window in which the signal field is sampled. The method time resolves the photon statistics as well as the mean intensity. Measurement examples are given for: (1) Temporal oscillations of laser pulses transmitted through a semiconductor quantum well in an optical microcavity and (2) The time-frequency profile of a linearly chirped ultrashort laser pulse.