Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) permit the monolithic integration of microelectronic circuits and light-emitting
devices on the same silicon chip. By the use of integrated photodetectors, low-cost CMOS processes and simple
packaging; economically produced optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) with combined sensors and actuating
elements can be realized. The OLEDs are deposited directly on the top metal layer. The metal layer serves as electrode
and defines the bright area. Furthermore, the area below the electrodes can be used for integrated circuits. Due to
efficient emitter with low operating voltage it is possible to renounce high-voltage devices depending on selected CMOS
process. Thus manufacturing cost can be further reduced. Different CMOS metallizations were examined and their
effects on organic light-emitting diodes were analyzed. Red (628nm) and orange (597nm) emitting p-i-n OLEDs with a
radiance of 5W/m<sup>2</sup>sr at 2.8V and 3.0V and a half angle of ±45° were realized on metal layer with low roughness. Near
infra-red emitters are in development. We will present an optical microsystem. The functionality of combined sensors
and actuating elements as well as advantages and difficulties of the monolithic integration of OLEDs and CMOS will be
discussed. The chip was manufactured in a commercial 1μm CMOS technology. The fabricated microsystem combines
three different types of sensors: a reflective sensor, a colour sensor and a particle flow sensor.
The integration of top-emitting OLEDs on CMOS substrates is of interest for a variety of applications. Whereas OLEDbased
microdisplays have already been commercialized, OLEDs could also be used to realize sensor applications, optocouplers,
Red top-emitting OLED structures were deposited on CMOS substrates. The OLED technology includes phosphorescent
emitters and doped transport layers. This approach results in high efficiencies and low operating voltage. The CMOS top
metal is crucial for this type of devices since this layer is the interface between CMOS and OLED technology. In a first
step, OLED process development was carried out on passive substrates without transistor circuit but CMOS compatible
interface. Luminance values of 100cd/m2 and 1000cd/m2 are reached at 2.45V and 3.1V, respectively. Current
efficiency at these luminance values is 14.2 cd/A and 13.4 cd/A, respectively, with a peak wavelength of 627nm. This
OLED stack was then successfully prepared on full-CMOS-substrates.
luminance values is 14.2 cd/A and 13.4 cd/A, respectively, with a peak wavelength of 627nm. This OLED stack was then
successfully prepared on full-CMOS-substrates.
Highly-efficient, low-voltage organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well suitable for post-processing integration
onto the top metal layer of CMOS devices. This has been proven for OLED microdisplays so far. Moreover, OLEDon-
CMOS technology may also be excellently suitable for various optoelectronic sensor applications by combining
highly efficient emitters, use of low-cost materials and cost-effective manufacturing together with silicon-inherent
photodetectors and CMOS circuitry.
The use of OLEDs on CMOS substrates requires a top-emitting, low-voltage and highly efficient OLED structure.
By reducing the operating voltage for the OLED below 5V, the costs for the CMOS process can be reduced, because
a process without high-voltage option can be used.
Red, orange, white, green and blue OLED-stacks with doped charge transport layers were prepared on different dualmetal
layer CMOS test substrates without active transistor area. Afterwards, the different devices were measured and
compared with respect to their performance (current, luminance, voltage, luminance dependence on viewing angle,
optical outcoupling etc.).
Low operating voltages of 2.4V at 100cd/m<sup>2</sup> for the red p-i-n type phosphorescent emitting OLED stack, 2.5V at
100cd/m<sup>2</sup> for the orange phosphorescent emitting OLED stack and 3.2V at 100cd/m<sup>2</sup> for the white fluorescent
emitting OLED have been achieved here. Therefore, those OLED stacks are suitable for use in a CMOS process
even within a regular 5V process option. Moreover, the operating voltage achieved so far is expected to be reduced
further when using different top electrode materials.
Integrating such OLEDs on a CMOS-substrate provide a preferable choice for silicon-based optical microsystems
targeted towards optoelectronic sensor applications, as there are integrated light barriers, optocouplers, or lab-onchip
Displays based on organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) have rapidly developed and are commercially available since
some time. However, in order to achieve large market penetration in new segments like lighting and optoelectronic, it is
generally expected that the current status of the field has to advance in terms of manufacturing cost and integration
OLED devices with electrically doped transport layers show low operating voltage, high efficiency and long lifetime. In
this paper we demonstrate that the concept of p- and n-type electrical doping can be applied under manufacturing
conditions on the worldwide first vertical in-line fabrication setup for large area lighting applications. An in-linemanufactured
highly efficient white-OLED-system will be presented. The driving of large area lighting tiles defines the
resulting OLED lifetime and efficiency. In this paper we will present first results on the driving of large area lighting
Beside the lighting application the integration of highly efficient OLEDs for optoelectronic applications is an
opportunity for innovative new applications. Microdisplays, integrated optocoupler and light barriers are few examples
for the potential of OLEDs in optoelectronic applications. We will present results regarding the integration of highly
efficient top-emitting PIN OLEDs<sup>TM</sup> for optoelectronic applications.
Microdisplays are used in various optical devices such as headsets, viewfinders and helmet-mounted
displays. The use of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) in a microdisplay on silicone substrate
provides the opportunity of lower power consumption and higher optical performance compared to
other near-to-eye display technologies.
Highly efficient, low-voltage, top emitting OLEDs are well suitable for the integration into a CMOSprocess.
By reducing the operating voltage for the OLEDs below 5V, the costs for the CMOS process
can be reduced significantly, because a standard process without high-voltage option can be used.
Various OLED stacks on silicone substrate are presented, suitable for full colour (RGB) applications.
Red and green emitting phosphorescent OLEDs and blue emitting fluorescent OLEDs all with doped
charge transport layers were prepared on a two metal layer CMOS test substrate without active
transistor area. Afterwards, the different test displays were measured and compared with respect to their
performance (current, luminance, voltage, luminance dependence on viewing angle, optical outcoupling
OLED devices with electrically doped transport layers show low operating voltage, high efficiency and long lifetime [1-3, 5, 7]. This paper demonstrates that the concept of p- and n-type electrical doping can be applied under manufacturing conditions. It shows that handling of dopants, adjustment of doping concentrations, and preparation of p-i-n type OLED stacks is possible with the worldwide first vertical in-line set-up. An in-line-manufactured highly efficient RGB-OLED-system is presented.
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) have to be improved to achieve new market segments in displays and lighting
applications. We present important steps towards achieving this goal in a combination of highly efficient devices,
manufacturing and new driving aspects.
It is generally expected that the manufacturing methods have to be made more efficient to achieve large market
penetration. We firstly present results on a highly efficient RGB-OLED-system with doped transport layer,
manufactured in the worldwide first vertical In-Line set-up.
Additionally a second-generation passive matrix OLED controller/driver IC was developed. Though the design was
application-specifically directed for the onto integration into an OLED minidisplay panel module (e.g., by pad layout
design being closely related to display connection schemes), versatile service in various applications was focused on.
Therefore, in general they may also act as application-specific standard products (ASSP), if their built-in functions
provide compatibility to a wide range of passive-matrix OLED panels. Additionally, the second generation supports
various PMOLED display resolutions, area or full-color (RGB) operating modes and circuit techniques for OLED
devices lifetime improvement.