<p>Two-photon microscopes have been successfully translated into clinical imaging tools to obtain high-resolution optical biopsies for <italic>in vivo</italic> histology. We report on clinical multiphoton coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) tomography based on two tunable ultrashort near-infrared laser beams for label-free <italic>in vivo</italic> multimodal skin imaging. The multiphoton biopsies were obtained with the compact tomograph “MPTflex-CARS” using a photonic crystal fiber, an optomechanical articulated arm, and a four-detector-360 deg measurement head. The multiphoton tomograph has been employed to patients in a hospital with diseased skin. The clinical study involved 16 subjects, 8 patients with atopic dermatitis, 4 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, and 4 volunteers served as control. Two-photon cellular autofluorescence lifetime, second harmonic generation (SHG) of collagen, and CARS of intratissue lipids/proteins have been detected with single-photon sensitivity, submicron spatial resolution, and picosecond temporal resolution. The most important signal was the autofluorescence from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [NAD(P)H]. The SHG signal from collagen was mainly used to detect the epidermal–dermal junction and to calculate the ratio elastin/collagen. The CARS/Raman signal provided add-on information. Based on this view on the disease-affected skin on a subcellular level, skin areas affected by dermatitis and by psoriasis could be clearly identified. Multimodal multiphoton tomographs may become important label-free clinical high-resolution imaging tools for <italic>in vivo</italic> skin histology to realize rapid early diagnosis as well as treatment control.</p>
Laser speckle patterns were used for characterization of skin topography (DermaSpec, 13N13841). A set of parameters were obtained for skin surface characterization. Preliminary data has already shown differences between skin tumor and healthy skin areas.