CCD cameras and CMOS devices are the major electronic components of industrial metrology, which are vulnerable to
high level electromagnetic exposure.
Typical sources of exposure of electronics to ionizing radiation are the Van Allen radiation belts for satellites, nuclear
reactors in power plants for sensors and control circuits, particle accelerators for control electronics particularly particle
detector devices, residual radiation from isotopes in chip packaging materials, cosmic radiation for spacecraft and highaltitude
aircraft, and nuclear explosions for potentially all military and civilian electronics.
A total dose 5 ×10<sup>3</sup> rad was delivered to silicon-based devices in seconds to minutes caused long-term degradation.
We demonstrated adaptive grating, 3D image sensor for NDE metrology which is non vulnerable
for high level X-Ray1 and 3 × 10<sup>6</sup> rad gamma radiation exposure.
Sensor is based on adaptive holographic grating generated by 632.8 nm He-Ne laser - in doped electro optic Bismuth
Titanate (BTO) monocrystal.
Mathematical algorithm of bipolar model conductivity in BTO crystal has been applied for experimental analyses.
Applications of proposed sensor for airspace, military, nuclear and civil engineering industries have been discussed.
Metal thin film functional properties depend strongly on its nanostructure, which can be manipulated by varying nucleation and growth conditions. Hence, in order to control the nanostructure of aluminum thin films fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering, we made use of in-situ monitoring of electrical and optical properties of the growing layer as well as plasma characterization by mass and optical emission spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity and I-V characteristics were measured. The optical constants were obtained from optical monitoring based on spectral ellipsometry. The relevant models (based on one or two Lorentz oscillators and B-spline functions) were suggested to evaluate the data obtained from the monitoring techniques. The results of the in-situ monitoring were correlated with scanning electron microscope analyses. We demonstrated the monitoring was able to distinguish the growth mode in real-time. We could estimate the percolation threshold of the growing layer and control layer nanostructure. The nanostructure was effectively manipulated by RF power variation. Optical functions exhibiting plasmonic behavior in the UV range and a strong nonlinear character of I-V curves were obtained for an ultrathin Al film deposited at a lower growth rate.
Silver is widely used for a fabrication of plasmonic devices due to its unique optical constants. Nanostructured Ag layer
can exhibit strong localized surface plasmon resonance, which mainly affects its optical behavior in visible and near
infrared spectra. The nanostructure of the Ag layer is mainly influenced during the initial stage of the silver nucleation.
Therefore we focused our attention on the study of this stage of the silver growth. The nanostructured ultra-thin silver
layers were prepared by means of the magnetron sputtering. The nucleation mode and the resulting nanostructure was
controlled by the deposition conditions. The initial stage of the nucleation and the layer growth was studied by means of
an optical monitoring, which is based on a principle of spectrophotometric measurement of sample reflectivity. The
measured data were fitted to a model of layered structure. The non-continual (Volmer-Weber) mode of the layer
nucleation was clearly distinguished in the monitored data. Thus we were able to estimate the point of the non-continual
layer coalescence as well as the subsequent evolution of the surface roughness. The prepared nanostructured Ag layers
were analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Optical properties were
studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry.
Ultrathin nanostructured metal films exhibit unusual properties and performances. Film functional properties depend
strongly on the nanostructure that can be manipulated by varying nucleation and growth conditions.
Hence, in order to control the nanostructure of aluminium thin film fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering, we focus on
in-situ monitoring of electrical and optical properties of the growing layer as well as plasma characterization by mass and
optical emission spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity and I-V characteristics were measured. The optical constants
were obtained from optical monitoring based on a spectral ellipsometry. The relevant models (based on one or two
Lorentz oscillators and B-spline function) are suggested to evaluate the data obtained from the monitoring techniques.
The results of the in-situ monitoring are correlated with SEM analyses.
We demonstrate the monitoring can distinguish the growth mode in the real-time. We can estimate the percolation
threshold of the growing layer and control layer nanostructure. We show that the nanostructure can be manipulated by
RF power variation. Optical functions exhibiting plasmonic behaviour in the UV range and a strong nonlinear course of
I-V curves were obtained for ultrathin Al film deposited at lower growth rate.
The vital demand for contemporary industry of real time NDE sensors is in field operation, which often
surrounded by harsh electromagnetic environment such as high level EMI fields or high level of X-Ray or nuclear
Contemporary CCD image sensors are highly vulnerable even for 0.5 volt EMI fields and highly vulnerable for x-ray
and gamma radiation.
The high lever radiation such as 50keV, 100kev, 150keV, 200keV, 300keV, 420keV, is extremely dangerous for human
body. CCD image sensors are vulnerable to that radiation level.
We proposed doped single crystal 3D image sensor for the real time NDE measurement.
Proposed sensor was not vulnerable to electromagnetic field produced by High Voltage Tesla generator and to the high
level X-ray radiation: 50keV, 100kev, 150keV
200keV, 300keV, 420keV.
Vulnerability and degradation of CCD image sensor to 40keV and 50keV
X-Ray radiation was demonstrated and documented.
Opportunity to use that sensor for real time NDE of protective coating layers, under high level radiation and EMI fields
We generated dark photovoltaic spatial solitons in the iron doped lithium niobate, and we studied the generation
process with a numerical model. The Schrodinger nonlinear equation was simulated with BPM (beam propagation
method). This numerical method is also called symmetrical split-step Fourier method. For the generation of
dark solitons, we used both the amplitude mask and the phase mask. The amplitude mask generated the even
number of solitons, and the phase mask created the odd number of solitons. Every result from our experiment
can be verified with BPM. The numerical program was programmed in Matlab. We created dark photovoltaic
solitons in a bulk crystal with the optical intensity 1 - 10 <i>m<i>W</i>/cm<sup>2</sup>, </i>and the soliton's FWHM about 5-18
<i>μm</i>. We observed the temporal evolution of the one-dimensional dark photovoltaic solitons under open-circuit
condition and the self-defocusing effect of the laser beam. The steady-state measurement (stable soliton) was
obtained after a 6-15 min exposure. For the generation the argon ion laser beam at the wavelength of 514nm
was used. It was polarized along the optical axis and collimated to a diameter of about 2mm on the input face.
The resulting index perturbation forms a planar waveguide.
We have measured the photovoltaic current of the iron doped lithium
niobate and determined the photovoltaic constants of the photovoltaic tensor. We used 0.25 <i>wt.% Fe</i> (verified with Rutherford back scattering method) doped <i>z-cut</i> crystals. We used the coplanar surface electrodes setup. The current was measured by a picoampermeter. We have analyzed the current as a function of the optical intensity and as a function of the polarization angle of the laser beam. The accuracy of the measurements is estimated to be of about 20%. We used the measured photovoltaic effect for the generation of spatial solitons. We generated dark planar photovoltaic spatial solitons in iron doped lithium niobate, and we measured properties of the waveguides generated by the spatial soliton. We created dark photovoltiac solitons in a bulk crystal with the optical intesity 1-10 <i>mW/cm<sup>2</sup></i>, and the soliton's FWHM about 5-18<i>μm</i>. We observed the temporal evolution of the one-dimensional dark photovoltaic solitons under open-circuit condition, and the self-defocusing effect of the laser beam. The steady-state measurement (stable soliton) was obtained after a 6-15 <i>min</i> exposure. For the generation the argon ion laser beam at the wavelength of 514 <i>nm</i> was used. It was polarized along the
optical axis and collimated to a diameter of about 2 <i>mm</i> on the input face. The resulting index perturbation forms a planar waveguide. We have measured its properties-the refractive index change and attenuation of the TE mode at the red He-Ne laser wavelength of 632.8 <i>nm</i>.
A summary of recent developments of x-ray spectroscopy for the application in laser produced plasma experiments is given. They are based on an advanced theoretical analysis of the radiation emission originating from autoionizing states and the realization of high resolution x-ray spectromicroscopy methods. Particular emphasize is given on non-Maxwellian particle analysis, strongly coupled plasmas and interpenetrating plasma sheaths of laser produced and compressing (pinching) plasmas.