The paper describes the results of experimental research on the mobile verification of travellers based on fingerprints. Three-day tests were carried out at the border crossing in Terespol, Poland. The developed system automatically acquires personal and biometric data (fingerprints) from the Polish biometric passport, determines their quality and compares with the live data collected from the traveller. In addition, the system measures the time of individual stages of the process and determines total transaction time. For total number of correctly scanned travellers equal to 128, false acceptance rate equals to 0, while rejection rate is less than 1%. The average transition time of border check was 37 seconds.
Conditions of fabrication of first-order distributed-feedback surface gratings designed for single-mode Al0.45Ga0.55As/GaAs quantum cascades lasers with the emission wavelength of about 10 μm are presented. The 1-μm-deep rectangular-shaped gratings with the period of about 1.55 μm and duty cycle in the range of 65% to 71% made by the standard photolithography are demonstrated. The wavenumber difference of about 7 cm−1 at 77 K is observed for the radiation emitted by lasers fabricated from the same epitaxial structure with ridge widths in the range of 15 to 25 μm. Moreover, the emission wavelength of the lasers could be tuned with temperature at a rate of 1 nm/K in the temperature range of 77 to 120 K. The full width at half maximum of the emitted spectra is ∼0.4 cm−1.
Conditions of fabrication of first order distributed-feedback surface gratings designed for single-mode Al0.45Ga0.55As/GaAs quantum cascades lasers with the emission wavelength of about 10μm are presented. The 1 μm-deep rectangular-shaped gratings with the period of about 1.55 μm and duty cycle in the range of 65-71% made by the standard photolithography are demonstrated. The wavenumber difference of about 7 cm-1 at 77 K is observed for the radiation emitted by lasers fabricated from the same epitaxial structure with ridge widths in the range of 15-25 μm. Moreover, the emission wavelength of the lasers could be tuned with temperature at a rate of 1 nm/K in the temperature range of 77-120 K. The full width at half maximum of the emitted spectra is ~ 0.4 cm-1.
In this study common clothing and variety of textile materials were used in research on its influence on remote materials identification. Experimental setup was designed for the terahertz reflection spectroscopy of different materials located at a distance up to 5 m. The source of the radiation is a tunable solid-state optical parametric oscillator (OPO), which generates a narrow-band nanosecond pulses in the range of 0.7-2.7 THz. The signal is detected with hot electron bolometer (HEB). Investigations were carried out for 1 m, 3 m and 5 m distance between the examined sample and the system. Experiment was conducted in the 0.7 – 2.5 THz range. Fabrics subjected to testing were varied in terms of the fibers kind which they were made from and weights of test materials ranged from 53 g/m2 up to 420 g/m2. Also textiles with a composition consisting of several fibers with differing percentage of the fibers composition of each sample were measured. Information about textiles transmission was obtained in separate set of experiments. The study fabrics were made of viscose, polyester, cotton, spandex, wool, nylon, leather, flax.
We report research results with regard to AlGaAs/GaAs structure processing for THz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs). We focus on the processes of Ti/Au cladding fabrication for metal–metal waveguides and wafer bonding with indium solder. Particular emphasis is placed on optimization of technological parameters for the said processes that result in working devices. A wide range of technological parameters was studied using test structures and the analysis of their electrical, optical, chemical, and mechanical properties performed by electron microscopic techniques, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and circular transmission line method. On that basis, a set of technological parameters was selected for the fabrication of devices lasing at a maximum temperature of 130 K from AlGaAs/GaAs structures grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy. Their resulting threshold-current densities were on a level of 1.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, initial stage research regarding fabrication of Cu-based claddings is reported as these are theoretically more promising than the Au-based ones with regard to low-loss waveguide fabrication for THz QCLs.
We report our research on processing of AlGaAs/GaAs structures for THz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs). We focus on
the processes of fabrication of Ti/Au claddings for metal-metal waveguides and the wafer bonding with indium solder.
We place special emphasis on the optimum technological conditions of these processes, leading to working devices. The
wide range of technological conditions was studied, by use of test structures and analyses of their electrical, optical,
chemical and mechanical properties, performed by electron microscopic techniques, energy dispersive X-ray
spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy and
circular transmission line method. On the basis of research a set of technological conditions was selected, and devices
lasing at the maximum temperature 130K were fabricated from AlGaAs/GaAs structures grown by molecular beam
epitaxy (MBE) technique. Their threshold-current densities were about 1.5kA/cm2. Additionally we report our initial
stage research on fabrication of Cu-based claddings, that theoretically are more promising than the Au-based ones for
fabrication of low-lossy waveguides for THz QCLs.
In this paper an alternative method of manufacturing SRR structures through the selective removal of a thin layer of silver-palladium deposited on the surface of the Al2O3 ceramic by laser ablation process using nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) was presented. The SRR structures array were subject to transmittance measurements using the TDS (Time Domain Spectroscopy). Both electric and magnetic resonances were observed at frequencies determined by the structural parameters of the SRR. In case of the E field perpendicular to an SRR structure and one resonance area for 0.56 THz with the E field parallel to the structure, two characteristic resonant dips for 0.31 THz and 0.62 THz were obtained. Studies have confirmed that using selective laser removal process enables the preparation of the resonant structure in the range of THz.
We present results on the comparison of different THz technologies for the detection and identification of a variety of
explosives from our laboratory tests that were carried out in the framework of NATO SET-193 “THz technology for
stand-off detection of explosives: from laboratory spectroscopy to detection in the field” under the same controlled
conditions. Several laser-pumped pulsed broadband THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) systems as well as one
electronic frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) device recorded THz spectra in transmission and/or
In this paper a method for producing resonant structures using laser micromachining is presented. In the spot of laser
beam impact on AlN ceramics surface a conductive aluminum layer is formed. Compilation of process parameters allows
for the fabrication of structures with resistance at Rs ~ 0.01Ω/Rs. It has been also found out that the maximum value of resistance for which spiral resonator structures manifest their unique properties is at the level of Rs = 1.43 Ω.
Furthermore, the occurrence of mutual capacity which value is dependent on the arrangement of individual SR structures
with respect to each other was observed and examined. Based on satisfactory results for SR structures, it has been
attempted to produce a resonant structures dedicated to the THz range based on the process of direct metallization of
AlN ceramics surface. As a result, the Split Ring Resonator structure whose properties were verified by using the
THz -TDS method was manufactured. In case of the field E perpendicular to SRR structure and one resonance area for
0.50 THz with field E parallel to the structure, two characteristic resonant dips for 0.22 THz and 0.46 THz were
obtained. The studies confirmed that the method of direct metallization of AlN ceramics allows to produce resonant
structures in the THz range.
We report on technical aspects connected with detection of the terahertz (THz) waves reflected from a small target which is situated at the distance of 5 meters. Details of experimental setup are presented. An optical parametric oscillator (OPO) was used as a THz nanosecond pulses radiation source and a hot-electron bolometer (HEB) was applied for pulse detection. A method of spectrum calculation from experimental data is described. Measured reflectance spectra of few materials are presented with explanation of the origin of water vapor hole burning in the reflectance spectrum.
We report on measurements of transmission spectra of chosen materials (Hexogen, sugar, L-tartaric acid, 4-aminobenzoic
acid) in the range 0.7-2.0 THz. The measurements were carried out by means of a setup, which bases on the optical
parametric oscillator (OPO) combined with the hot electron bolometer (HEB). The setup consists of the commercially
available tunable OPO working in the range 0.7-2.0 THz with repetition rate 53 Hz, duration of the impulse of about
20ns and energy 10nJ. The beam was detected by the fast and sensitive HEB. The spectra were compared to results
obtained from a standard time domain spectroscopy (TDS) setup. Only small discrepancies between spectra measured by
both methods are observed. For the range 0.7-2.0 THz typical features can be identified using both methods. Above 2
THz the TDS setup seems to have better performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity.