We have elaborated substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based on carbon nanowalls (CNW) deposited with Ag nanoparticles and thin Ag films. For carbon nanowalls deposited with silver nanoparticles, the achieved analytical enhancement factor SERS was from 50 to 2500. Much higher analytical enhancement factor of SERS, up to 5×10<sup>4</sup>, was obtained for carbon nanowalls deposited with thin Ag film. In this case the SERS signal is determined by fractal structure of carbon nanowalls covered by Ag films. Such fractal structure provides a strong inhomogeneous localization of light, formation of a large number of hot spots and leads as a result to significant enhancement of SERS signal.
The new fiber components with the full photonic band gap by insert of opal matrixes in gap of a fiber line are proposed. The methods of opal matrixes doping by various chemical elements and compounds, and also formations of inverse opals, open a way to creation of various photon fiber elements with amplifying, nonlinear and/or sensors properties, and also opportunities of these properties management. Optical properties and some technological aspects of fiber photonic crystals formation are briefly considered.
The main laser materials, the most used for optical communication spectral window (~ 1,5 microns), are erbium doped glasses and crystals. The processes of light interaction with gain media essentially change at introduction of ΕΓ3+ ions in mesoporous matrix of various dimensions, in particular, as a result of multiple light scattering and occurrence of new quantum-optical effects. These will allow not only effectively to control a level of spontaneous emission in laser systems, but also to achieve light localization in various waveguide structures. Application of 3D- (volumetric) and 2D- (planar) matrixes (doped by erbium or other rare-earth elements) in systems of optical communication and information processing, in laser technology and optical computers becomes possible. The various approaches to obtain of materials with photonic band gap (photonic crystals) are analyzed. The use of "self-organizing" systems seems to be most perspective. Such, in particular, are 3D- and 2D-structures on the basis of cubic packing SiO2 nanospheres (opal matrixes) and 2D-structures on the basis of porous anodic alumina (PAA). The ΕΓ3+ions can be introduced into these matrixes by various methods (in present work some methods were used: impregnation, sol-gel, magnetron sputtering). As a result, the diverse systems such as "active media - optical matrix" are formed.
The basic areas of use the unique characteristics of bacteriorhodopsin are defined by progress in creation of systems with a high degree of such molecules orientation. The maximal range of orientation can be achieved in the self-organized systems of supramolecules of optically active materials. The method of formation such structures is advanced. The structures were created in interstitial voids of cubic packing SiO2 nanospheres with a diameters of 240 - 250 nm (opal matrixes) on various substrates, including crystalline strontium-barium niobate and lithium niobate, which concerning to a class of strong piezoelectrics. The problem of bacteriorhodopsin introduction into opal matrixes is solved. The photoluminescence of the received nanocomposites is investigated under excitation by laser radiation in yellow spectrum range. The influence of substrate materials and temperature on photoluminescence spectra is discussed.