Proc. SPIE. 6042, ICMIT 2005: Control Systems and Robotics
KEYWORDS: Actuators, Unmanned aerial vehicles, Digital signal processing, Sensors, Computing systems, Control systems, Computer simulations, Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, Algorithm development, Control systems design
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was designed to fulfill its mission autonomously. Its core technology for successful development of the UAV is to design of the flight control system (FCS) consisting of the flight control computer, the actuator, the sensor in order to replace the pilot. Each development procedure of FCS involves a verifying test for each step and was completed by an evaluation test of the comprehensive performance verification for the overall systems. The development tool, which is applied to this objective, is the HILS (Hardware-In-the-Loop-Simulation). That is, HILS is a cost-effective method for testing complex, flight-critical hardware before it is used in the real world. The real-time HILS is shown to develop/verify the performance of SURV UAV's controller in the lateral/directional control systems.
In this study, a new method is described for integrating an electrospray ionization interface to a mass spectrometer with a capillary electrophoresis channel. We have fabricated the ESI-MS device composed of the metal emitter tip, allowing the generation of an efficient nanospray for protein detection, and CE separation channel monolithically in a glass microchip. A triangular-shaped gold emitter tip was formed by electroplating at the end of the separation channel. As an ESI source, this emitter structure aided the formation of a stable Taylor cone. It is easily fabricated by MEMS technology and more robust than that of silica or polymer recently reported. Moreover, this approach is less involved than applying a conductive coating to the exit end to establish electrical contact. As such, the interface is less dependent upon the longevity or durability of such coating, factors that have been consideration in the sheathless interfaces. The spraying stability was evaluated and the ESI-MS experiment was performed by spraying standard peptides for mass spectrometric analysis. The spraying was stable, with a relative standard deviation of 2.9%. The CE/ESI-MS analysis was performed by separating and spraying standard peptide mixture of Bradykinin 1-5, Bradykinin 1-8, and Angiotensin I. Each peptide was separated successfully and singly-charged peaks and doubly-charged peaks of each peptide were detected, respectively. Direct comparisons with conventional ESI-MS system using glass or fused silica emitters showed very similar performance with respect to signal intensity and stability.
We propose a prototype of silicon-on-glass microchip for protein detection by bead-based affinity chromatography. The microchip has five channels integrated by composing one beads reactor per one channel. Especially, an effective protein analysis mechanism is presented where the three protein-pretreatment processes are simultaneously performed on a single beads reactor: selective detection (purification / sensing), pre-concentration and protein digestion. Since the five channels are closely spaced in parallel on the microchip, it is possible to inspect the five different detection results on real-time in a single microscope image. The microchip is fabricated on silicon-on-glass (SiOG) to make a mechanically strong and vertically transparent structure for efficient fluid interconnection and fluorescence detection, respectively. Within the microchip, the grid-type filter is formed on channel output to physically trap 38 ~ 50 μm diameter microbeads. The dimension of one grid is 30 × 30 μm<sup>2</sup>. The volume flow rate was investigated experimentally on the case of bead-packed chamber, and the resulted value was compared to that of the case of hollow chamber. In this research, we used self-cleavage free aptazymes as detection ligands immobilized on polystyrene microbeads. The target proteins are firstly on-chip concentrated and fluorescence-detected (confocal microscopy), and secondly checked off-chip by using MALDI-TOF. If the two analyses are used cooperatively, it is expected that the accuracy in diagnostic analysis will be enhanced in biosensing system. Especially by using this free aptazymes system, we don't need to consider the requirement of fluorescence tagging and the difficulty of eluting antibody-bound proteins from microbeads without bad effects of harsh elution conditions in protease treatment. We analyzed the on-bead detection of HCV replicase and HCV helicase respectively by measuring fluorescence intensities at different concentrations, and also performed a selectively detection of HCV helicase from protein mixtures.