In order to effectively improve the coupling efficiency of terahertz (THz) detectors, we design a grating-coupled structure on the high-resistivity silicon substrate for 0.2 THz to 0.35 THz band to enhance the ability of coupling terahertz signals. We simulated the electric field distribution of the grating-coupled structure in surface and inside by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The electric field in the central area of the silicon surface can be enhanced more than 4 times compared with the non-structure silicon substrate. We also simulated the Fabry-Perot cavity in the frequency range from 0.2 THz to 0.35 THz, and the electric field in the central area of the silicon surface can be improved one time compared with the non-structure silicon substrate. In addition, the electric field distribution on the silicon surface can be changed by adjusting parameters of the grating-coupled structure. When the period of the grating is 560 μm, the width of the gold is 187 μm, and the thickness of the silicon substrate is 720 μm, a 4.7 times electric field could be achieved compared with the non-structure silicon substrate at 0.27 THz and around. So, the simulation result shows that the grating-coupled structure has an obvious advantage compared with the Fabry-Perot cavity at THz coupling efficiency.
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) with a composite optical structure composed of phase-grating and optical cavity structures are designed to enhance system detection efficiency and count rates. Numerical simulation by finite-difference time-domain method shows that the photon absorption capacity of SNSPDs with a composite optical structure can be enhanced significantly by adjusting the parameters of the phase-grating and optical cavity structures. The absorption capacity of the superconducting nanowires reached 69.8% at the wavelength of 850 nm with 0.3 filling factor. When the filling factor was reduced to only 0.08, the absorption capacity is still 48.52%. It greatly decreased the kinetic inductance of SNSPDs, and improved the count rates.