FengYun-4A (FY-4A) is the first three-axis stabilized geostationary meteorological satellite in China, which was launched in the early morning of 11 Dec., 2016. Advanced Geosynchronous Radiation Imager (AGRI) is one of the four payloads onboard FY-4A, and acquired the first image on 20 Feb., 2017. FY-4A AGRI contains 14 spectral bands, in which 6 bands are in reflective solar region, with the nominal wavelengths at 0.47, 0.65, 0.825, 1.375, 1.61 and 2.25μm. The spatial resolution is 0.5 km for 0.65 μm band, 2 km for the shortwave infrared bands and 1 km for others. AGRI is designed with a solar diffuser, however it revealed the insufficient capacity for in-flight calibration mainly due to the partial aperture effect. The first vicarious calibration field campaign was conducted at the Dunhuang site of China Radiometric Calibration Site (CRCS) in Apr. 2017. It revealed the large bias of the AGRI data calibrated using the prelaunch calibration parameters, mostly underestimated. Using multiple land sites in Asia and Oceania, the calibration correction factors were derived combined with the CRCS data. The sensor's on-orbit radiometric response variation and observation bias against the simulated radiation were also monitored. It revealed that the bands at 0.65 μm was most stable, while 0.47 μm band showed the large degradation with an annual rate nearly 17%. In this paper, the calibration status of the FY-4A AGRI solar bands was presented.
FY-3C/MERSI has some remarkable improvements compared to the previous MERSIs including better spectral response function (SRF) consistency of different detectors within one band, increasing the capability of lunar observation by space view (SV) and the improvement of radiometric response stability of solar bands. During the In-orbit verification (IOV) commissioning phase, early results that indicate the MERSI representative performance were derived, including the signal noise ratio (SNR), dynamic range, MTF, B2B registration, calibration bias and instrument stability. The SNRs at the solar bands (Bands 1–4 and 6-20) was largely beyond the specifications except for two NIR bands. The in-flight calibration and verification for these bands are also heavily relied on the vicarious techniques such as China radiometric calibration sites(CRCS), cross-calibration, lunar calibration, DCC calibration, stability monitoring using Pseudo Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) and multi-site radiance simulation. This paper will give the results of the above several calibration methods and monitoring the instrument degradation in early on-orbit time.
Modulation transfer function (MTF) can be used to evaluate spatial quality of an satellite imaging sensor using a sharp edge, a pulse target, or bar pattern target. This investigation evaluates on-orbit MTF performance of FengYun (FY)-3C MERSI with 20 Bands with 1 km and 250 m spatial resolutions using polar ice and snow as a sharp edge, which was launched on September 23 of 2013. The MTF is calculated by using a Fourier transformation on the line spread function (LSF) though a simple differentiation of the edge spread function (ESF). The final MTF Nyqusit frequencies of the most of MERSI Bands along FY-3C flight direction are higher than 0.30, which are satisfy the original design requirements of 0.25 (250 m) and 0.27 (1km). But the Nyquist frequencies of all Bands along FY-3C scanning direction are around 0.13 that are clearly lower than 0.25/0.27. This relatively worse spatial quality of image along FY-3C scanning direction is primarily attributed to the 27% overlapped scan mode of MERSI sensor for every pixel. The objective of design defect in FY-3C MERSI instrument system is to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of scanning image. To overcome the drawback, in future, we will develop some deblurring methods to restore FY-3C/MERSI image along scanning direction.