As an optical element, diffraction grating is of considerable importance in many research fields. In this paper, Fourier analysis method is used to analyze the Fraunhofer diffraction phenomena of plane and convex holographic gratings under various conditions. Based on the transmittance function, the law of complex amplitude distribution, intensity distribution and spectral distribution on the diffraction screen is derived. For the planar and convex holographic gratings in the spectrometer design, the inherent laws of optical phenomena can be understood more deeply. In particular, the convex holographic gratings are analyzed as a combination of amplitude type plane grating and phase type spherical mirror, rather than being considered separately in most literature.
To achieve airborne wide-field hyperspectral remote sensing, we often use a way of splice two or more detectors. This paper proposes a new whiskbroom hyperspectral imaging system with using a motion structure scanning to obtain a wide-field hyperspectral data. In the meantime, aircraft’s attitude disturbance could be compensated. Compared with field splicing, the system reduces complexity and cost of optical structure. We provide a new method to realize significant airborne wide-field, high-resolution remote sensing spectral imaging.