In this work, the effect of Si doping on InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells with AlAs cap layers is studied. The AlAs cap layers suppress the formation of the wetting layer during quantum dot growth. This helps achieve quantum dot state filling, which is one of the requirements for strong sub-bandgap photon absorption in the quantum dot intermediate band solar cell, at lower Si doping density. Furthermore, the passivation of defect states in the quantum dots with moderate Si doping is demonstrated, which leads to an enhancement of the carrier lifetime in the quantum dots, and hence the open-circuit voltage.
The realization of efficient III-V lasers directly grown on Si substrates is highly desirable for large-scale and low-cost silicon based optoelectronic integrated circuits. However, it has been hindered by the high threading dislocation (TD) density generated at the interface between III-V compounds and Si substrates. Introducing dislocation filter layers (DFLs) to suppress the TD propagation into the active region becomes a key factor for realising lasers with advanced performance. In this paper, optimization of InGaAs/GaAs DFLs in III-V quantum dot (QD) lasers on Si is demonstrated. Based on these optimized DFLs and other strategies, we have achieved a high performance electrically pumped QD laser on a Si substrate with threshold current density of 62.5 A cm-2, over 105 mW output power, maximum operation temperature of 120 °C and over 100,158 h of extrapolated lifetime.
We report on high quality GaAs-on-Si layers with low threading dislocations obtained by a combination of nucleation layer and dislocation filter layers using the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth method. As a result, we achieved a Si-based electrically pumped 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) laser that lases up to 111°C with a lasing threshold of 200 A/cm2, and a single facet output power exceeding 100 mW at room temperature. In addition to Si-based lasers, we also demonstrated the first Si-based InAs/GaAs QD superluminescent light-emitting diode (SLD), from which a close-to-Gaussian emission with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~114 nm centered at ~1258 nm and maximum output power of 2.6 mW has been achieved.
Lattice-mismatched 1.7eV Al0.2Ga0.8As photovoltaic solar cells have been monolithically grown on Si substrates using Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy (SSMBE). As a consequence of the 4%-lattice-mismatch, threading dislocations (TDs) nucleate at the interface between the Si substrate and III-V epilayers and propagate to the active regions of the cell. There they act as recombination centers and degrade the performances of the cell. In our case, direct AlAs/GaAs superlattice growth coupled with InAlAs/AlAs strained layer superlattice (SLS) dislocation filter layers (DFLSs) have been used to reduce the TD density from 1×109cm-2 to 1(±0.2)×107cm-2. Lattice-matched Al0.2Ga0.8As cells have also been grown on GaAs as a reference. The best cell grown on silicon exhibits a Voc of 964mV, compared with a Voc of 1128mV on GaAs. Fill factors of respectively 77.6% and 80.2% have been calculated. Due to the lack of an anti-reflection coating and the non-optimized architecture of the devices, relatively low Jsc have been measured: 7.30mA.cm-2 on Si and 6.74mA.cm-2 on GaAs. The difference in short-circuit currents is believed to be caused by a difference of thickness between the samples due to discrepancies in the calibration of the MBE prior to each growth. The bandgap-voltage offset of the cells, defined as Eg/q-Voc, is relatively high on both substrates with 736mV measured on Si versus 572mV on GaAs. The non-negligible TD density partly explains this result on Si. On GaAs, non-ideal growth conditions are possibly responsible for these suboptimal performances.