Energy harvesting and storage systems (EHSS) for future AF vehicles are reviewed with emphasis on thermoelectics,
organic materials, specifically, dye-sensitized solar cells and polymer batteries. The organic solar cells include solid-state
organic solar cells and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The advantages of using such organic EHSS for AF vehicles
are their specific performance, its scalability to larger skin area and low-temperature processing route, thus cost-effective
however, there are several technical challenges preventing us to develop the organic EHSS in a speedy way.
Phthalocyanine dyes are well known for their intense absorption in the red and near-IR regions. We synthesized novel
phthalocyanines for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Those dyes can absorb in the red and near-IR regions and adsorb
onto the surface of TiO<sub>2</sub>. Using such phthalocyanines as working electrode with TiO<sub>2</sub>, DSSCs were assembled and its
photocurrent-voltage and IPCE characteristics have been studied and compared. Light energy conversion efficiency of
DSSCs depended on the structures of phthalocyanine, the co-adsorbent, and the electrolytes. Furthermore, multi-dye
type DSSC was investigated, which mixed a phthalocyanine and a carotenoid derivative. The conversion efficiency of
the multi-dye DSSC increased compared with the DSSC which used single dye.