Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) can be described using the scattering process through an inhomogeneous media. An inherent nonlinearity exists relating the scattering medium and the scattered field due to multiple scattering. Multiple scattering is often assumed to be negligible in weakly scattering media. This assumption becomes invalid as the sample gets more complex resulting in distorted image reconstructions. This issue becomes very critical when we image a complex sample. Multiple scattering can be simulated using the beam propagation method (BPM) as the forward model of ODT combined with an iterative reconstruction scheme. The iterative error reduction scheme and the multi-layer structure of BPM are similar to neural networks. Therefore we refer to our imaging method as learning tomography (LT). To fairly assess the performance of LT in imaging complex samples, we compared LT with the conventional iterative linear scheme using Mie theory which provides the ground truth. We also demonstrate the capacity of LT to image complex samples using experimental data of a biological cell.
We present an experimental comparison of optical tomography techniques: Learning Tomography (LT), an iterative method based on beam propagation model and diffraction tomography (DT) based Born and Rytov approximation. Imaging experiments were performed on yeast cells clusters fixed in a transparent agarose gel. In particular, we compare the LT with a similar iterative but linear method based on Rytov approximation.