Genalyte has developed a multiplex silicon photonic chip diagnostics platform (Maverick<sup>TM</sup>) for rapid detection of up to 32 biological analytes from a drop of sample in just 10 to 20 minutes. The chips are manufactured with waveguides adjacent to ring resonators, and probed with a continuously variable wavelength laser. A shift in the resonant wavelength as mass binds above the ring resonators is measured and is directly proportional to the amount of bound macromolecules. We present here the ability to multiplex the detection of hemorrhagic fever antigens in whole blood, serum, and saliva in a 16 minute assay. Our proof of concept testing of a multiplex antigencapture chip has the ability to detect Zaire Ebola (ZEBOV) recombinant soluble glycoprotein (rsGP), Marburg virus (MARV) Angola recombinant glycoprotein (rGP) and dengue nonstructural protein I (NS1). In parallel, detection of 2 malaria antigens has proven successful, but has yet to be incorporated into multiplex with the others. Each assay performs with sensitivity ranging from 1.6 ng/ml to 39 ng/ml depending on the antigen detected, and with minimal cross-reactivity.
Silicon photonic technology has incredible potential to transform multiplexed bioanalysis on account of the scalability of
device fabrication, which maps favorably to a myriad of medical diagnostic applications. The optical properties of
CMOS-fabricated microring resonators are incredibly responsive to changes in the local dielectric environment
accompanying a biological binding event near the ring surface. Arrays of high-Q microrings were designed to be
individually addressable both in surface derivitization, using well-established microarraying technologies, and in optical
evaluation. The optical response of each ring can be determined in near real time allowing multiple biomolecular
interactions to be simultaneously monitored. We describe a stable and robust measurement platform that allows sensitive
visualization of small molecule surface chemical derivitization as well as monitoring of biological interactions, including
the detection of proteins and nucleic acids. We also present recent results demonstrating multiplexed measurement of
cancer markers. These demonstrations establish a pathway to higher level multiparameter analysis from real-world
patient samples; a development that will enable individualized disease diagnostics and personalized medicine.
Microprocessor performance is now limited by the poor delay and bandwidth performance of the on-chip global wiring layers. Although relatively few in number, the global metal wires have proven to be the primary cause of performance limitations - effectively leading to a premature saturation of Moore's Law scaling in future Silicon
generations. Building upon device-, circuit-, system- and architectural-level models, a framework for performance evaluation of global wires is developed aimed at quantifying the major challenges faced by intrachip global communications over the span of six technology generations. This paper reviews the status of possible intra-chip optical interconnect solutions in which the Silicon chip's global metal wiring layers are replaced with a high-density guided-wave or free-space optical interconnection fabric. The overall goal is to provide a scalable approach that is compatible with established silicon chip fabrication and packaging technology, and which can extend the reach of Moore's Law for many generations to come. To achieve the required densities, the integrated sources are envisioned to be modulators that are optically powered by off-chip sources. Structures for coupling dense modulator arrays to optical power sources and to free-space or guide-wave optical global fabrics are analyzed. Results of proof-of-concept experiments, which demonstrate the potential benefits of ultra-high-density optical interconnection fabrics for intra-chip global communications, are presented.