Sophisticated surgeries require the integration of several medical imaging modalities, like MRI and CT, which are three-dimensional. Many efforts are invested in providing the surgeon with this information in an intuitive & easy to use manner. A notable development, made by Visionsense, enables the surgeon to visualize the scene in 3D using a miniature stereoscopic camera. It also provides real-time 3D measurements that allow registration of navigation systems as well as 3D imaging modalities, overlaying these images on the stereoscopic video image in real-time. The real-time MIS 'see through tissue' fusion solutions enable the development of new MIS procedures in various surgical segments, such as spine, abdomen, cardio-thoracic and brain. This paper describes 3D surface reconstruction and registration methods using Visionsense camera, as a step toward fully automated multi-modality 3D registration.
In years past, the picture quality of electronic video systems was limited by the image sensor. In the present, the resolution of miniature image sensors, as in medical endoscopy, is typically superior to the resolution of the optical system. This "excess resolution" is utilized by Visionsense to create stereoscopic vision. Visionsense has developed a single chip stereoscopic camera that multiplexes the horizontal dimension of the image sensor into
two (left and right) images, compensates the blur phenomena, and provides additional depth resolution without sacrificing planar resolution. The camera is based on a dual-pupil imaging objective and an image sensor coated by an array of microlenses (a plenoptic camera). The camera has the advantage of being compact, providing
simultaneous acquisition of left and right images, and offering resolution comparable to a dual chip stereoscopic camera with low to medium resolution imaging lenses. A stereoscopic vision system provides an improved 3-dimensional perspective of intra-operative sites that is crucial for advanced minimally invasive surgery and
contributes to surgeon performance. An additional advantage of single chip stereo sensors is improvement of tolerance to electronic signal noise.