Steam laser cleaning of alumina and titanium carbide nanoparticles from silicon substrates is presented. A KrF excimer laser with a wavelength of 248 nm was used to irradiate the substrates in laser cleaning. A water layer of micrometer thickness was deposited on silicon substrates to improve the cleaning process. Cleaning efficiency was measured for different laser fluences ranging from 50 to 250 mJ/cm<sup>2</sup> and pulse numbers from 1 to 100. Research work was carried out to address the factors governing steam laser cleaning, during which thickness of water thin film and lift-off velocities of water films from Si substrate surfaces were monitored. In addition, one-dimensional simulations were employed to estimate the temperature increase on the material surfaces upon laser irradiation. Water layer thickness was measured using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Monitoring of both lift-off velocities and water thin film removal time were carried out by optical probing approaches using He-Ne laser of 632.8 nm wavelength.
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated tips have been successfully applied in field emitter arrays, and scanning probe microscope (SPM) based nanofabrications. DLC deposition on tips is conventionally realized by thermal and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition processes. In this study, we use laser-assisted method employing strongly enhanced near field around the tip apex for DLC deposition. DLC films were deposited on tungsten (W) tips under KrF excimer laser irradiation in a benzene solution and in a laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) chamber. Simulation results showed a highly localized optical field enhancement at the tip apex. There was also an optical-field gradient from apex to tip body. Experiment results showed that a locally confined DLC film was deposited based on energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Raman spectra showed that at positions close to apexes, films tend to be more diamond-like. This implies that quality of DLC film varies according to local optical intensity along the tip. Hence, the deposition process was confirmed to be induced by the local near field generated by laser and nanotip interaction.