Lasers and laser systems are a mature technology, yet there is a long road ahead for innovation and enthusiasm. We review some of the 40 years of R&D and manufacturing of lasers at ELOP-Elbit Systems. Bulk solid state lasers, for designators and range finders, as well as fiber lasers, for directed IR countermeasures and laser radar applications are described. These two technologies provide and will continue to offer a vast number of products for security and defense applications. Current and future generations of laser products will have higher average power together with improved beam quality, better efficiencies, and superior robustness all in a more compact package.
Photonic integration is one of the important ways to realize low cost and small form factor optical transceivers for future high-speed high capacity I/O applications in computing systems. The photonic integration on silicon platform is particularly attractive because of the CMOS photonics and electronics process compatibility. In this paper, we present design and fabrication of a silicon photonic integrated circuit that is capable of transmitting data at hundreds gigabits per second. In such an integrated chip, 8 high-speed silicon optical modulators with a 1:8 wavelength demultiplexer and an 8:1 wavelength multiplexer are fabricated on a single silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. We review the recent results of individual silicon modulator based on electric-field-induced carrier depletion in a SOI waveguide containing a reverse biased pn junction. We characterize the individual multiplexer/demultiplexer as well as the integrated chip. The basic functionality of the photonic integration is demonstrated.
High-speed silicon optical modulator is one of key components for integrated silicon photonic chip aiming at Tb/s data
transmission for next generation communication networks as well as future high performance computing applications. In
this paper we review the recent development of the silicon modulator. In particular, we present a high-speed and highly
scalable silicon optical modulator based on the free carrier plasma dispersion effect. The fast refractive index modulation
of the device is due to electric-field-induced carrier depletion in a Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide containing a reverse
biased pn junction. To achieve high-speed performance, a traveling-wave design is employed to allow co-propagation of
electrical and optical signals along the waveguide. We demonstrate high-frequency modulator optical response with 3
dB bandwidth of ~20 GHz and data transmission up to 30 Gb/s. We also highlight the future device optimization for 40
Gb/s and beyond.
In recent years there has been a growing interest in using Silicon on Insulator (SOI) as a platform for integrated planar optical circuits, this is mainly due to the high quality yield volume processes demonstrated by the CMOS manufacturing industry and recent MEMS technology progress. In this work we present monolithic integration of Silicon and SiON planar lightwave circuits on a single SOI chip processed in a CMOS fabrication environment. The demonstration of a processing scheme that yields low loss waveguides for both silicon and SiON as well as efficient transition of light between the two materials is the goal of this present work. The patterning of waveguides in both silicon and SiON regions is done in a self aligned process using one lithography mask and two separate dry etch steps each highly selective to one of the two materials. The effect of a high temperature anneal on the IR absorption of SiON related N-H bond was measured using FTIR and waveguide optical loss. Up to 98% reduction in absorption is demonstrated which allows acceptable loss across the C-band. We have achieved low propagation loss, single mode, and rib waveguides for both Silicon and SiON core regions as well as low loss silicon-SiON waveguides junction. The silicon-SiON junction loss has been measured to be 0.9+/-0.1dB, only 0.3dB greater than the theoretical value determined by Fresnel's facet reflection.
We present a brief overview of a promising switching technology: Silica-on-Silicon thermo-optic planar lightwave circuit integrated circuits (PLCs). This 2-D solid-state optical device is capable of non-blocking switching operations and several additional important built-in functionalities. Both enable single-to-single channel switching, and single-to-multiple channel multicasting/broadcasting. In addition, it has the capability of channel weighting and variable output attenuationlpower control, for instance, to equalize signal levels and compensate for unbalanced different optical input powers, or to equalize unbalanced EDFA gain curve. We mention the market segments appropriate for the switch size and technology, followed by several application examples: (1) Core networks use cross-connect systems to establish connections among nodes as well as among network segments; (2) Switching to protect and restore network service.
We present a brief overview of a promising switching technology based on Silica on Silicon thermo-optic integrated circuits. This is basically a 2D solid-state optical device capable of non-blocking switching operation. Except of its excellent performance (insertion loss<5dB, switching time<2ms...), the switch enables additional important build-in functionalities. It enables single-to- single channel switching and single-to-multiple channel multicasting/broadcasting. In addition, it has the capability of channel weighting and variable output power control (attenuation), for instance, to equalize signal levels and compensate for unbalanced different optical input powers, or to equalize unbalanced EDFA gain curve. We examine the market segments appropriate for the switch size and technology, followed by a discussion of the basic features of the technology. The discussion is focused on important requirements from the switch and the technology (e.g., insertion loss, power consumption, channel isolation, extinction ratio, switching time, and heat dissipation). The mechanical design is also considered. It must take into account integration of optical fiber, optical planar wafer, analog electronics and digital microprocessor controls, embedded software, and heating power dissipation. The Lynx Photon.8x8 switch is compared to competing technologies, in terms of typical market performance requirements.