Regarding climate change, we have still large uncertainties to predict long-term variation, such as the global average temperature after 100 years. According to the report by Inter-governmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), one of the main factors of the uncertainties are from lack of understanding the process between aerosols and clouds. In order to accelerate the understandings of the process, observation of the aerosol over land is crucial. On the other hand, from the monitoring point of view, we do not have sufficient data to distinguish the effect of human activities on and near the land. The results of previous mission; ADEOS-2 Global Imager (GLI) suggests the 1 km ground resolution is not enough for distinguish the effect of human activities, such as deforestation, land cover change, pollution in coastal area, and so on. In this study, we designed a new sensor of which main ground resolution is 250 m, has wide spectral range (0.38~12 miron), rather wide swath for global observation and polarimetry function. The sensor named Second generation GLI (SGLI) consists of two sensors. The first one is conventional push broom type imager for visible and near infrared region with polarimetry channels. The second one is whisk broom sensor for shortwave and thermal infrared. SGLI has 11 channels in VNIR and 6 channels in infrared at nadir position, 2 channels with 3 polarization angles for polarimetry. The total mass of the sensor is around 400 kg. The new JAXA standard bus will carry it on the sun synchronous polar orbit at 10:30, Local Time of Descending Node. The proposed launch year is 2011.
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has some Earth observation programs such as disaster and crisis monitoring, investigation of the Earth resources, global environmental to contribute to a safe and secure society. Presently, there are many global issues such as shortage of water resources, desertification, increase in natural disasters, which inflict a serious impact on our community. To overcome such problems and take appropriate measures against them, it is necessary to cooperate among many countries and ensure the establishment of a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustained Earth observation. The 2nd Earth Observation Summit was held in April 2004 and adopted the framework for the 10-year implementation plan, aimed at the establishment of an integrated earth observation system of systems, so called Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). JAXA has been developping a future Earth observation program to contribute the GEOSS in cooperate with other space agencies. JAXA committed the contribution to GEOSS using satellites such as ALOS, GPM/DPR and GOSAT mainly focused on observations of global warming and water cycle at the 2nd Summit. In addition, JAXA will propose a series of satellites for establishing GEOSS to monitor climate change. JAXA is studying the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) to contribute to process study, prediction of the global change phenomena and the preservation of the global environments.
The ADEOS-II satellite was successfully launched with an H-IIA rocket from Tanegashima Space Center in southern Japan on December 14, 2002. Amongst the six remote sensing instruments on-board, the payload includes the Global Imager (GLI) - a 36-channel multi-spectral scanner developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) for ocean, terrestrial, atmosphere and cryosphere applications. 30 bands operate with a 1 km spatial resolution, while the remaining six bands, primarily dedicated for terrestrial use, acquire data with 250 metres ground resolution at nadir. The cancellation of one of the two planned Data Relay Test Satellites (DRTS) required for data down-link however resulted in reduced acquisition capacity at 250 metre resolution and thus prompted the establishment of a dedicated 250-metre data observation strategy, which aims to optimise 250 m observations over land, and to provide spatially and temporally consistent, multi-seasonal global land coverage, on a repetitive basis during the life-time of the ADEOS-II satellite. Plans for 250 m data product generation are furthermore outlined briefly in this paper.
ADEOS-II was launched successfully on December 14, 2002 by NASDA with H-IIA rocket flight IV, and named as “Midori II”. It carries six Earth observing sensors including Global Imager (GLI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) developed by NASDA. These Earth observation sensors obtain data 24 hours a day. The observed data are relayed by “Kodama” (Data Relay Test Satellite (DRTS)), or are directly downlink to NASDA/EOC and foreign ground stations in Kiruna, Alaska, and Wallops. Level-1 and higher level processing is performed by GLI and AMSR data processing systems at EOC to create the science products. The products are archived at Data Storage Systems (DSS) and released to the users according to the requests after the products quality is confirmed through hardware checkout, calibration and validation process. NASDA performed the initial checkout of ADEOS-II satellite and onboard sensor hardware for four months after launch. The following eight months are to be used for the evaluation of ground system and products validation. Summary of ground system evaluation is shown and data processing system is focused.