Revolutionary progress in the photonic technology provides the ability to develop military systems of new properties not possible to obtain with the use of classical technologies. In recent years, this progress has resulted in developing advanced, complex, multifunctional and relatively cheap Photonic Integrated Circuits (PIC) or Hybrid Photonics Circuits (HPC) built of a collection of standardized optical, optoelectronic and photonic components. This idea is similar to the technology of Electronic Integrated Circuits, which has revolutionized the microelectronic market. The novel approach to photonic technology is now revolutionizing the photonics’ market. It simplifies the photonics technology and enables creation of technological centers for designing, development and production of advanced optical and photonic systems in the EU and other countries. This paper presents some selected photonic technologies and their impact on such defense systems like radars, radiolocation, telecommunication, and radio-communication systems.
The paper concentrates on the double-refracting systems - particularly variable wavelength techniques (VAWI) for reflected light... The family of techniques for (transmitted and reflected light) is especially recommended for studying objects, which produce optical path difference more than a few wavelengths. In such cases classical approach consisting in measuring deflection of interference fringes is not useful because of edge effects that break continuity of interference fringes. The VAWI methods have been invented in the time when image processing devices and computers were hardly available. Automated devices unfold a completely new approach to the classical measurement procedures. The paper discusses mainly construction aspects of the systems in context of the computerised instruments.
The examination of quality of the sperm ejaculate is one of the most important steps in artificial fertilization procedure. The main aim of semen storage centres is to characterise the best semen quality for fertilization. Reliable information about sperm motility is also one the most important parameters for <i>in vitro</i> laboratory procedures. There exist very expensive automated methods for semen analysis but they are unachievable for most of laboratories and semen storage centres. Motivation for this study is to elaborate a simple, cheap, objective and repeatable method for semen motility assessment. The method enables to detect even small changes in motility introduced by medical, physical or chemical factors. To test the reliability of the method we used cryopreserved bull semen from Lowicz Semen Storage Centre. The examined sperm specimen was warmed in water bath and then centrifuged. The best semen was collected by the swim-up technique and diluted to a proper concentration. Several semen concentrations and dilutions were tested in order to find the best probe parameters giving repeatable results. For semen visualization we used the phase-contrast microscope with a CCD camera. A PC computer was used to acquire and to analyse the data. The microscope table equipped with a microscope glass pool 0.7mm deep instead of some conventional plane microscope slides was stabilised at the temperature of 37°C. The main idea of our method is based on a numerical processing of the optical contrast of the sperm images which illustrates the dynamics of the sperm cells movement and on appropriate analysis of a grey scale level of the superimposed images. An elaborated numerical algorithm allows us to find the relative amount of motile sperm cells. The proposed method of sperm motility assessment seems to be objective and repeatable.
IR laser light scattering phenomena allows to visualize inhomogeneities in the bulk semiconductor materials. A device for observation of IR scattering in semiconductor wafers - the laser scanning tomograph (LST) - was designed and manufactured in the Institute of Applied Optics. A sample is illuminated by the diode pumped Nd:YAG laser, emitting the IR laser light in TEMoo mode. The laser beam diameter inside the semiconductor samples does not exceed 50 micrometers . The scattering centers inside the sample are observed perpendicularly to the direction of illuminating beam, using microscope with an IR CCD camera. To obtain a 2D image of scanned plane, the sample is moved horizontally by a scanning stage. The system has also a moving stage that allows to move the sample vertically. This enables the sample investigation in the third direction. The LST is controlled by a PC computer equipped with a user friendly software. The measurements results of GaAs wafers are presented.
Infrared laser light scattering is a powerful tool for investigation of inhomogeneities in the bulk semiconductor materials. For sample illumination the diode pumped Nd:YAG laser emitting monomode 1.06 micrometers beam is used. The laser beam waist inside the semiconductor samples does not excess 50 micrometers . The scattered centers inside the sample are observed perpendicularly to the direction of illuminating beam using microscope with infrared CCD camera. To obtain 2D image of scanned plane the sample is moved horizontally by the scanning stage driven by computer. Controlled changing of scanning plane enables the investigation of the sample in the third direction. The scanning and scattered image processing are controlled by computer. The device is tested on GaAs wafers.
Methods for measurement of optical fibers and wires diameters, data processing and experimental results are presented. The charge-coupled devices line array as a detector for reading one dimensional diffraction images was applied. Experimental results showed that diameters of optical fibers can be measured with 1% accuracy and wires with 0.5% accuracy. The described method can be apply to industry control measuring device working on line.
An automatic interferometric method is proposed for measuring the transmission
peak wavelength of monochromatic filters and their bandwidths. The
fringe interference field is sampled by a standard CCD camera and processed
using a PC computer. These above mentioned spectrometric parameters of filters
follow from the analysis of the interfringe spacing and fringe intensity distribution
( visibility of fringes ). A known double-refracting interference
microscope was used in the performed experiment.
The novel construction of a scanning, computer driven diffractometer is proposed. The Fourier diffractometry with directionally changed incident light wave, without sophisticated transforming lenses and with a single stable detector, was applied. The device and software were tested on geometrical object and complicated biomedical images.