The paper provides the results of the analysis of a region-specific response of the surface temperature field in the Northern Hemisphere to the changes in solar activity. The surface temperature is selected as one of the main integral signs of climate change. Assimilation of the influence of solar activity on Earth changes depending on the location of a weather station and in the annual course. The hypothesis of the consistency of climatic processes is confirmed using the phase grouping algorithm. Climatic structures where temperature changes occur more consistently and response to external forcing influence differs are identified. Stations located in equatorial, sub-equatorial, and tropical belts and in zones affected by the largest marine centers of the climatic system activity are more sensitive to external influences.
The problem an estimation of influence the crystal orientation in the ice clouds on the radiation transmission is solved. The technique of synchronous measurements of total radiation with the calculation of the backscattering matrix cirrus clouds using lidar is provided.
The present paper introduces the results of analyzing the space-time structure of extreme characteristics of precipitation in Western Siberia. For each index, with the view of changes evaluation, differences between average values for periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010 were calculated. The assessment of synchronicity in time and space with the use of factor and cluster analysis showed that changes in precipitation of Western Siberia are determined by global climate-forcing processes only by one-third. When taking into account the results of division into classes, the share of the explained variance increases to 40-60%. The performed classification confirmed an increase in synchronicity when decreasing the territory scale.