The ability to create metamorphic hybrid heterostructure of 1300 nm spectral band VCSEL is demonstrated. Metamorphic semiconductor part of heterostructure with GaAs/AlGaAs DBR and InAlGaAs/InGaAs QW active region has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs (100). Top dielectric SiO2/Ta2O5 DBR is made by the magnetron sputtering method. VCSEL has been studied under optical pumping (λ = 532 nm, diameter of the focused laser beam of ~ 1 μm) by using micro-PL setup in the range of optical pump power 0 – 70 mW at room temperature. Presence of the superlinear PL intensity growth having threshold-like dependence of PL integral intensity together with the PL peaks narrowing and mode composition modification with the pumping density increasing could be attributed to lasing behavior of the structure. Obtained results indicate the opportunity to use metamorphic growth on GaAs substrates for the 1300 nm range VCSEL manufacturing.
In this work, electrically-injected microdisk lasers with diameter varied from 15 to 31μm based on an InAs/InGaAs QD
active region have been fabricated and tested in continuous wave regime. At room temperature, lasing is achieved at
wavelength around 1.26…1.27 μm with threshold current density about 900 A/cm2. Specific series resistance is
estimated to be about 10-4 Ohm•cm2. The lasers were tested at elevated temperatures. Lasing is achieved up to 100°C
with threshold current of 13.8mA and lasing wavelength of 1304nm in device with 31μm diameter. To the best of our
knowledge, this is the highest CW lasing temperature and the longest lasing wavelength ever reported for injection QD
microdisk/microring lasers on GaAs substrates. Emission spectrum demonstrates single-mode lasing with side mode
suppression ration of 24dB and dominant mode linewidth of 35pm. The far field radiation pattern demonstrates two
narrow maxima off the disk plane. A combination of device characteristics achieved (low threshold, long wavelength,
operation at elevated temperatures) makes them suitable for application in future optoelectronic circuits for optical
In this study, we have investigated metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial nano-patterned selective area growth of InGaAs/InP on non-planar (001) InP surfaces. Due to high etching resistance and the small molecular size of negative tone electron beam HSQ resist, the protection mask formed in HSQ has small feature sizes in ten nanometers scale and allow realization of in-situ etching. As was observed in the SAG regime, in-situ etching of InP by carbon tetrabromide leads to formation of self-limited structures. By altering etching time, the groove shape can be changed from a triangular trench to a trapeze. Another appealing aspect of in situ etching is that the shape of InGaAs can be tuned from a crescent to a triangular or a line by varying growth parameters. Quantum well wires can be fabricated by growing directly in the bottom of V-shaped groove. In addition, changes of mask orientations lead to anistropic or isotropic character of etching. The investigated technique of nano-patterned selective area growth allows obtaining different profiles of structures and different quantum structures such as quantum well or wires in the same growth run. To investigate the shape and crystalline quality of the active material, the cross-sectional geometry was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The optical properties were carried out at room temperature using micro-photoluminescence setup. The results showed different deposition rates for openings oriented along [0-11] and [0-1-1] directions with higher rate along [0-1-1]. The fabricated active material was incorporated into photonic crystal waveguides.
Spectral and power characteristics of QD stripe lasers operating in two-state lasing regime have been studied in a wide range of operation conditions. It was demonstrated that neither self-heating nor increase of the homogeneous broadening are responsible for quenching of the ground-state lasing beyond the two-state lasing threshold. It was found that difference in electron and hole capture rates strongly affects light-current curve. Modulation p-type doping is shown to enhance the peak power of GS lasing transition. Microring and microdisk structures (D = 4-9 μm) comprising 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs quantum dots have been fabricated and studied by μ-PL and NSOM. Ground-state lasing was achieved well above root temperature (up to 380 K). Effect of inner diameter on threshold characteristics was evaluated.
High concentration of optical power in a narrow exit angle is extremely important for numerous applications of laser diodes, for example, for low-cost fiber pumping and coupling, material processing, direct frequency conversion, etc. Lasers based on the longitudinal photonic band crystal (PBC) concept allow a robust and controllable extension of the fundamental mode over a thick multi-layer waveguide region to achieve a very large vertical optical mode spot size and, consequently, a very narrow vertical beam divergence. Many undesirable effects like beam filamentation, lateral multimode operation and catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) are strongly reduced. 650 nm GaInP/GaAlInP PBC lasers show narrow far field pattern (FWHM~7°) stable up to the highest output powers. Differential efficiency up to 85% is demonstrated. Total single mode output power as high as 150 mW is achieved in 4 μm-wide stripes in continuous wave operation, being limited by COMD due to not passivated facets. The lateral far field FWHM is 4 degrees. 840 nm GaAs/GaAlAs PBC lasers show a vertical beam divergence of 8° (FWHM) and a high differential efficiency up to 95% (L=500 μm). A total single mode CW power approaches 500 mW for 1 mm-long 4 μm-wide stripes devices at ~500 mA current, being COMD-limited. The lateral far field FWHM is 5 degrees. Another realization of a longitudinal PBC laser allows lasing in a single high-order vertical mode, a so-called tilted mode, which provides wavelength selectivity and substantially extends the possibility to control the thermal shift of the lasing wavelength. In a multilayer laser structure, where the refractive index of each layer increases upon temperature, it is possible to reach both a red shift of the lasing wavelength for some realizations of the structures, and a blue shift for some others. Most important, the absolute thermal stabilization of the lasing wavelength of a semiconductor laser can be realized.
Recent achievements in self-organized quantum dots (QDs) have demonstrated their potential for long-wavelength laser
applications. However, the wavelength of QD structures pseudomorphically grown on GaAs substrate is typically not
longer than 1.3 μm. In this work we study a novel approach for extension of the spectral range of GaAs-based diode
lasers up to 1.5 μm. We use a sensitivity of QD emission to the band gap energy of surrounding matrix. The method is
based on formation of a QD array inside a metamorphic InGaAs epilayer. Growth regimes of metamorphic buffer that
enable mirror-like surface morphology in combination with effective dislocation trapping are discussed. Structural and
optical properties of metamorphic InAs/InGaAs QDs are presented. It is shown that the wavelength of QD emission can
be controllably tuned in the 1.37-1.58 μm range by varying the composition of metamorphic InGaAs matrix. Details of
formation, fabrication, and characterization of metamorphic-based diode lasers are also presented. We demonstrate a
lasing wavelength as long as 1.48 μm in the 20-80 °C temperature interval. The minimum threshold current density is
800 A/cm2 at RT. The external differential efficiency and pulsed power maximum exceed 50% and 7 W, respectively.
We report on lasers and light emitting diodes based on the longitudinal photonic bandgap crystal (PBC) concept. The PBC design allows achieving a robust and controllable extension of the fundamental mode over a thick multi-layer waveguide region to obtain a very large vertical optical mode spot size and a very narrow vertical beam divergence. An efficient suppression of high order modes can be realized either by the optical confinement factor selection of the fundamental mode, which is localized at the "optical defect" region and has a higher overlap with the gain region. All the other modes spread across the thicker PBC waveguide. In another approach leakage loss selection can be used to suppress excited modes in case of absorbing substrate or the substrate with a higher-refractive index. In this paper we concentrate on growth and performance of high power single mode visible (650 nm) GaInP/AlGaInP PBC lasers, giving a comprehensive example. The devices show narrow far field pattern (full width at half maximum of vertical beam divergence of about 7°), which is stable up to the highest output powers. Differential efficiency up to 85% is demonstrated. Total continuous wave single mode output power as high as 120 mW is achieved in 4 micrometer-wide stripes. Infrared (980 nm) InGaAs/AlGaAs PBC lasers with a beam divergence down to 4.2 degrees and a high temperature stability of the threshold current are also demonstrated.
Development of submonolayer deposition technique can offer significant flexibility in creation of strained heterostructures of different types and material systems. It was found that under certain growth conditions the deposition of InAs insertions of less than 1 monolayer (ML) thickness in GaAs matrix forms so-called sub-monolayer quantum dots (SML QDs). The energy spectrum of these QDs can be varied over a wide range by tuning the InAs coverage and the thickness of GaAs spacers. Stranski-Krastanow (In,Ga)As QDs (SK QDs), which have been investigated in more details, have proved theoretically predicted lower threshold current density of 26 A/cm2 in compare with QW lasers. However, strong size variation of SK QDs in combination with the relatively low sheet density leads to low peak gain achievable in the ground state. This problem is the reason of typically low efficiency of SK QD-based lasers. Due to higher gain, SML QDs have proved their potential for high power laser application. In this presentation we report on further progress in the technology of SML QD lasers demonstrating high output power (6W) from 100-μm-wide laser diode emitting at 0.94 μm. High power QW-based lasers of the state-of-the-art performance are also presented for comparison.
Optical and structural properties of self organized InGaAs quantum dots (QD), deposited in Al0.3Ga0.7As matrix, were investigated. Samples were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). It is shown, that deposition of 1.7 - 4 monolayer of InAs on Al0.3Ga0.7As surface results in formation of nanoscale QDs on 1 - 2 monolayer thick wetting layer (Stranski-Krastanov growth mode). Large exciton localization energy of the InAs QDs in Al0.3Ga0.7As in compare with QDs in GaAs is demonstrated. This is due to increase in size of these QDs and significant bandgap offset in the case of InAs/AlGaAs system in compare with InAs/GaAs one.
Optical properties of GaAsN/GaAs heterostructures with different N contents grown by molecular-beam epitaxy were investigated. We show that under the certain grows reigmes the optical properties of the GaAsN layers are determined by recombination via localized states which is due to composition fluctuation. An increase in the N concentration leads to increase in composition fluctuation and, correspondingly, to increase in energy of localized states. Thermal annealing reduces nonuniformity distribution of nitrogen atoms. In short-period GaAsN/GaAs superlattice the effects of phase separation can be enhanced.