This paper explores the optical characteristics of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PhC) as spectral control components for use in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems. 1D PhC are used as optical filters while 2D PhC are used as selective thermal emitters. A Si/SiO2 1D PhC is fabricated using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). The measurement and characterization of this structure is presented. A 2D hexagonal PhC of periodic holes is fabricated using interference litography and reactive ion etching (RIE) process. Our results predict that a TPV system utilizing a 2D PhC selective emitter and 1D Si/SiO2 PhC optical filter promises significant performance improvements over conventional TPV system architectures.