The oil and gas industry is continually striving to produce more hydrocarbons and reduce waste. Many sensing
techniques using optical fiber have been developed over the last three decades for all stages of well development. This
paper reviews these optical sensing technologies, with emphasis on new applications and business drivers. Expected
performance parameters of these new technologies are discussed, including their accuracy, resolution, stability, and
operational lifetime. Environmental conditions, such as high temperatures, shock, vibration, crush, and chemical
exposure, are also discussed. These optical technologies are expected to provide safe, reliable, cost-effective, and
unprecedented monitoring solutions.
For almost three decades, interest has continued to increase with respect to the application of fiber-optic sensing techniques for the upstream oil and gas industry. This paper reviews optical sensing technologies that have been and are being adopted downhole, as well as their drivers. A brief description of the life of a well, from the cradle to the grave, and the roles fiber-optic sensing can play in optimizing production, safety, and protection of the environment are also presented. The performance expectations (accuracy, resolution, stability, and operational lifetime) that oil companies and oil service companies have for fiber-optic sensing systems is described. Additionally, the environmental conditions (high hydrostatic pressures, high temperatures, shock, vibration, crush, and chemical exposure) that these systems must tolerate to provide reliable and economically attractive oilfield monitoring solutions are described.
There is increasing interest in the petroleum industry in the application of fiber-optic sensing techniques. In this paper, we review which sensing technologies are being adopted downhole and the drivers for this deployment. We describe the performance expectations (accuracy, resolution, stability and operational lifetime) that the oil companies and the oil service companies have for fiber-optic sensing systems. We also describe the environmental conditions (high hydrostatic pressures, high temperatures, shock, vibration, crush, and chemical attack) that these systems must tolerate in order to provide reliable and economically attractive reservoir-performance monitoring solutions.
This paper describes the experimental results of selective rock removal using different types of high power lasers. US military owned continuous wave laser systems such as MIRACL and COIL with maximum powers of 1.2 MW and 10 kW and wavelengths of 3.8 and 1.3 mm respectively, were first used on a series of rock types to demonstrate their capabilities as a drilling tool for petroleum exploitation purposes. It was found that the power deposited by such lasers was enough to drill at speeds much faster than conventional drilling. In order to sample the response of the rocks to the laser action at shorter wavelengths, another set of rock samples was exposed to the interaction of the more commercially available high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser. To isolate the effects of the laser discharge properties on the rock removal efficiency, a versatile 1.6 kW Nd:YAG laser capable of providing pulses between 0.1 millisec and 10 millisec in width, with a maximum peak power of 32 kW and a variable repetition rate between 25 and 800 pulses/sec was chosen. With this choice of parameters, rock vaporization and melting were emphasized while at the same time minimizing the effects of plasma shielding. Measurements were performed on samples of sandstone, shale, and limestone. It was found that each rock type requires a specific set of laser parameters to minimize the average laser energy required to remove a unit volume of rock. It was also found that the melted material is significantly reduced in water saturated rocks while the drilling speed is still kept higher than conventional drilling.