The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is a 6 m telescope located in the Atacama Desert, designed to measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with arcminute resolution. ACT, with its third generation polarization sensitive array, Advanced ACTPol, is being used to measure the anisotropies of the CMB in five frequency bands in large areas of the sky (~ 15,000 deg<sup>2</sup>). These measurements are designed to characterize the large scale structure of the universe, test cosmological models and constrain the sum of the neutrino masses. As the sensitivity of these wide surveys increases, the control and validation of the far sidelobe response becomes increasingly important and is particularly challenging as multiple reflections, spillover, diffraction and scattering become difficult to model and characterize at the required levels. In this work, we present a ray trace model of the ACT upper structure which is used to describe much of the observed far sidelobe pattern. This model combines secondary mirror spillover measurements with a 3D CAD model based on photogrammetry measurements to simulate the beam of the camera and the comoving ground shield. This simulation shows qualitative agreement with physical optics tools and features observed in far sidelobe measurements. We present this method as an efficient first-order calculation that, although it does not capture all diffraction effects, informs interactions between the structural components of the telescope and the optical path, which can then be combined with more computationally intensive physical optics calculations. This method can be used to predict sidelobe patterns in the design stage of future optical systems such as the Simons Observatory, CCAT-prime, and CMB Stage IV.
The Simons Observatory (SO) is a new experiment that aims to measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in temperature and polarization. SO will measure the polarized sky over a large range of microwave frequencies and angular scales using a combination of small (~0.5 m) and large (~6 m) aperture telescopes and will be located in the Atacama Desert in Chile. This work is part of a series of papers studying calibration, sensitivity, and systematic errors for SO. In this paper, we discuss current efforts to model optical systematic effects, how these have been used to guide the design of the SO instrument, and how these studies can be used to inform instrument design of future experiments like CMB-S4. While optical systematics studies are underway for both the small aperture and large aperture telescopes, we limit the focus of this paper to the more mature large aperture telescope design for which our studies include: pointing errors, optical distortions, beam ellipticity, cross-polar response, instrumental polarization rotation and various forms of sidelobe pickup.
The Advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (AdvACT) is an upgraded instrument for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, which uses transition-edge sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. We review the integration and characterization of the final polarimeter array, which is the low frequency (LF) array, consisting of 292 TES bolometers observing in two bands centered at 27 GHz and 39 GHz. This array is sensitive to synchrotron radiation from our galaxy as well as to the CMB, and complements the AdvACT arrays operating at 90, 150 and 230 GHz to provide robust detection and removal of foreground contamination. We present detector parameters for the LF array measured in the lab, including saturation powers, critical temperatures, thermal conductivities, time constants and optical efficiencies, and their uniformity across the entire wafer.
We present the novel design of microfabricated, silicon-substrate based mirrors for use in cryogenic Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs) for the mid-IR to sub-mm/mm wavelength regime. One side of the silicon substrate will have a double-layer metamaterial anti-reflection coating (ARC) anisotropically etched into it and the other side will be metalized with a re ective mesh pattern. The double-layer ARC ensures a re ectance of less than 1% at the surface substrate over the FPI bandwidth. This low reflectance is required to achieve broadband capability and to mitigate contaminating resonances from the silicon surface. Two silicon substrates with their metalized surfaces facing each other and held parallel with an adjustable separation will compose the FPI. To create an FPI with nearly uniform finesse over the FPI bandwidth, we use a combination of inductive and capacitive gold meshes evaporated onto the silicon substrate. We also consider the use of niobium as a superconducting reflective mesh for long wavelengths to eliminate ohmic losses at each reflection in the resonating cavity of the FPI and thereby increase overall transmission. We develop these silicon-substrate based FPIs for use in ground (e.g. CCAT-prime), air (e.g. HIRMES), and future space-based telescopes (e.g. the Origins Space Telescope concept). Such FPIs are well suited for spectroscopic imaging with the upcoming large IR/sub-mm/mm TES bolometer detector arrays. Here we present the fabrication and performance of multi-layer, plasma-etched, silicon metamaterial ARC, as well as models of the mirrors and FPIs.
CCAT-prime will be a 6-meter aperture telescope operating from sub-mm to mm wavelengths, located at 5600 meters elevation on Cerro Chajnantor in the Atacama Desert in Chile. Its novel crossed-Dragone optical design will deliver a high throughput, wide field of view capable of illuminating much larger arrays of sub-mm and mm detectors than can existing telescopes. We present an overview of the motivation and design of Prime-Cam, a first-light instrument for CCAT-prime. Prime-Cam will house seven instrument modules in a 1.8 meter diameter cryostat, cooled by a dilution refrigerator. The optical elements will consist of silicon lenses, and the instrument modules can be individually optimized for particular science goals. The current design enables both broad- band, dual-polarization measurements and narrow-band, Fabry-Perot spectroscopic imaging using multichroic transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers operating between 190 and 450 GHz. It also includes broadband kinetic induction detectors (KIDs) operating at 860 GHz. This wide range of frequencies will allow excellent characterization and removal of galactic foregrounds, which will enable precision measurements of the sub-mm and mm sky. Prime-Cam will be used to constrain cosmology via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effects, map the intensity of [CII] 158 μm emission from the Epoch of Reionization, measure Cosmic Microwave Background polarization and foregrounds, and characterize the star formation history over a wide range of redshifts. More information about CCAT-prime can be found at www.ccatobservatory.org.
We present the detailed science case, and brief descriptions of the telescope design, site, and first light instrument plans for a new ultra-wide field submillimeter observatory, CCAT-prime, that we are constructing at a 5600 m elevation site on Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. Our science goals are to study star and galaxy formation from the epoch of reionization to the present, investigate the growth of structure in the Universe, improve the precision of B-mode CMB measurements, and investigate the interstellar medium and star formation in the Galaxy and nearby galaxies through spectroscopic, polarimetric, and broadband surveys at wavelengths from 200 m to 2 mm. These goals are realized with our two first light instruments, a large field-of-view (FoV) bolometer-based imager called Prime-Cam (that has both camera and an imaging spectrometer modules), and a multi-beam submillimeter heterodyne spectrometer, CHAI. CCAT-prime will have very high surface accuracy and very low system emissivity, so that combined with its wide FoV at the unsurpassed CCAT site our telescope/instrumentation combination is ideally suited to pursue this science. The CCAT-prime telescope is being designed and built by Vertex Antennentechnik GmbH. We expect to achieve first light in the spring of 2021.
The CCAT-prime telescope is a 6-meter aperture, crossed-Dragone telescope, designed for millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength observations. It will be located at an altitude of 5600 meters, just below the summit of Cerro Chajnantor in the high Atacama region of Chile. The telescope’s unobscured optics deliver a field of view of almost 8 degrees over a large, flat focal plane, enabling it to accommodate current and future instrumentation fielding <100k diffraction-limited beams for wavelengths less than a millimeter. The mount is a novel design with the aluminum-tiled mirrors nested inside the telescope structure. The elevation housing has an integrated shutter that can enclose the mirrors, protecting them from inclement weather. The telescope is designed to co-host multiple instruments over its nominal 15 year lifetime. It will be operated remotely, requiring minimum maintenance and on-site activities due to the harsh working conditions on the mountain. The design utilizes nickel-iron alloy (Invar) and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials in the mirror support structure, achieving a relatively temperature-insensitive mount. We discuss requirements, specifications, critical design elements, and the expected performance of the CCAT-prime telescope. The telescope is being built by CCAT Observatory, Inc., a corporation formed by an international partnership of universities. More information about CCAT and the CCAT-prime telescope can be found at www.ccatobservatory.org.
The Advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter is an upgraded receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, which has begun making measurements of the small angular scale polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background using the first of four new multichroic superconducting detector arrays. Here, we review all details of the optimization and characterization of this first array, which features 2012 AlMn transition- edge sensor bolometers operating at 150 and 230 GHz. We present critical temperatures, thermal conductivities, saturation powers, time constants, and sensitivities for the array. The results show high uniformity across the 150 mm wafer and good performance in the field.
Advanced ACTPol is an instrument upgrade for the six-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) designed to
measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization with arcminute-scale angular
resolution. To achieve its science goals, Advanced ACTPol utilizes a larger readout multiplexing factor than any
previous CMB experiment to measure detector arrays with approximately two thousand transition-edge sensor
(TES) bolometers in each 150 mm detector wafer. We present the implementation and testing of the Advanced
ACTPol time-division multiplexing readout architecture with a 64-row multiplexing factor. This includes testing
of individual multichroic detector pixels and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexing
chips as well as testing and optimizing of the integrated readout electronics. In particular, we describe the new
automated multiplexing SQUID tuning procedure developed to select and optimize the thousands of SQUID
parameters required to readout each Advanced ACTPol array. The multichroic detector pixels in each array
use separate channels for each polarization and each of the two frequencies, such that four TESes must be read
out per pixel. Challenges addressed include doubling the number of detectors per multiplexed readout channel
compared to ACTPol and optimizing the Nyquist inductance to minimize detector and SQUID noise aliasing.