We describe a reduced model approach to x-ray transport down synchrotron radiation beamlines. The method uses a ray tracing code for computation of a transfer matrix for sections including drift spaces and focusing elements separated by physical apertures. The transport matrix along the beamline is analyzed analogously to charged particle beam optics. For coherent radiation, the wavefront is propagated by the transport matrix via linear canonical transformation. For the partially coherent case, the matrix can be applied directly to the Wigner function. We apply this method to a beamline section comprised of a KB focusing system and compare results between Synchrotron Radiation Workshop and SHADOW. Machine learning methods are also used for 2-D automated alignment. Plans for use of the reduced model within a beamline control system and more advanced used of machine learning methods for automation and reconfiguration are discussed.
The brightness and coherence of modern light sources is pushing the limits of X-ray beamline design. The open source Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) provides physical optics based algorithms for correctly simulating such beamlines.1 We present new SRW capabilities to calculate source brightness and related quantites for undulators. The Sirepo cloud computing framework2, 3 includes a browser-based GUI for SRW.4–6 In addition to high-accuracy wavefront simulations, the Sirepo interface now supports analytical calculations for flux, photon beam size, divergence and photon brightness. We have included the effects of detuning from resonance and electron beam energy spread, which can be important in realistic operational conditions. We compare our results to features previously available in the Igor Pro interface to SRW, to analytical formulae available in the literature, and also to the results of simulated wavefront propagation. Differences between the various approaches are explained in detail, so that all the assumptions, conventions and ranges of validity can be better understood.