Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is widely used in fruits and vegetables quality evaluation. This technique is also used for the analysis of alfalfa, a crop that occupies a position of great importance in the agricultural field. In particular for the storage, moisture content is a key parameter for the crops and for this reason its monitoring is very important during the harvesting phase. Usually optical methods like NIRS are well suitable in laboratory frameworks where the specimen is properly prepared, while their application during the harvesting phase presents several diffculties. A lot of influencing factors, such as density and degree of homogeneity can affect the moisture evaluation. In this paper we present the NIRS analysis of alfalfa specimens with different values of moisture and density, as well as the obtained results. To study scattering and absorption phenomena, the forward and backward scattered light from the sample have been spectrally analyzed.