It is proposed a new approach in the estimation of quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field and Doppler effect using a model formed from two quantum modes of the cavity which propagate in opposite direction. The Doppler effect plays a significant role in the model in which an atom flies through the nodes and anti-nodes of the standing wave. It is shown that if the vacuum Rabi frequency achieves the value of Doppler shift kv, where k is the wave vector and v represents the atomic velocity, then the collective interactive and non-interactive modes of the resonator become connected. The interaction process looks like in the case of two coupled cavities in one of which is placed an atom. The comparison between the proposed approach and existing time dependent coupling model is given. In our model, it is obtained the non-zero value of quantum fluctuations in the nodes of the standing wave during the time in which atom flies through the cavity.
The energy transferring between three q-bits system flying simultaneously through an optical cavity, is discussed. It is observed the migration of energy from one excited radiator with dipole forbidden transitions relatively to another two- radiators with half excitation energy of first atom. Photon entangled state between distinct atoms and their transfer is studied. These atoms in our interpretations are named, D - dipole forbidden atom, S_{1} and S_{2} - two dipole active atoms with summer energy ћɷ_{1} + ћɷ_{2} = ћɷ_{n}, ɷ_{1} observe the periodical transfer of energy from D- atom to ensemble of two S- atoms. This effect may be used for quantum gates processing in which the energy transfer depends on the input information. The quantum discord and entanglement for this system of q-bits was explored.
The cooperative excitation and absorption of light into three cavity modes (pump, Stokes and anti-Stokes), stimulated by excited radiators, is studied as bound entangled states of the photon subsystem. The three modes collective Roman emission and its connection with entangled state is defined introducing the cooperative description between photons of cavity modes. In the case, when the scattering rates in the Stokes and anti-Stokes modes coincide, the SU(2) and SU(1,1) symmetries are applied for a simple description of these cooperative processes. The possibilities to realize this effect in the free space is proposed, replacing the cavity modes with dipole active excited atoms in tow-quantum interaction with dipole-forbidden transitions of D atom. The statistical properties and detection method are proposed using the information entropy and atomic correlation functions.
Taking into consideration the granulate glass deposition of the TiO_{2} glass we propose a phenomenological model describing the nonlinear process of the growth of Ti and TiO_{2 }films on Si or SiO_{2} substrates as function of temperature. It is proposed that the phase transition can take place in earth granule so that the fixed Tg temperature is absent in comparison with traditional phase transition from thermodynamics. The continue temperature transition from crystalline to vitreous phase in the deposited films is analyzed based upon the nonlinear theory of phase transitions and the granulate aspect of deposited material.
Proc. SPIE. 9258, Advanced Topics in Optoelectronics, Microelectronics, and Nanotechnologies VII
KEYWORDS: Nanostructures, Resonators, Nanoparticles, Chemical species, Luminescence, Ions, Optical resonators, Two wave mixing, Temperature metrology, Correlation function
The resonance fluorescence of an atomic (or ion) system implanted in the materials driving two standing waves of the optical cavity is studied taking into consideration the delocalization of the atom. It is demonstrated that the resonance fluorescence depends on the position of atoms (or ions) relative the nodes or antinodes of standing waves. This situation gives us the possibility to measure the amplitude of mechanical oscillations of these radiators implanted in organic or inorganic materials. It is proposed to measure the amplitude of the mechanical oscillations relative to the equilibrium position using the time changes in the positions of the five peaks of the resonance fluorescence spectrum. In this case, the small oscillation amplitude relative to the standing wave length can drastically change the spectrum of resonance fluorescence of such atoms. The proposed method can be used in the measurements of the nanostructure temperature (or bio-molecule temperature deformation).
Proc. SPIE. 8882, ROMOPTO 2012: Tenth Conference on Optics: Micro- to Nanophotonics III
KEYWORDS: Polarization, Scattering, Chemical species, Particles, Single photon, Raman spectroscopy, Neodymium, Bosons, Absorption, Correlation function
The two-photon and scattering resonances between the spontaneous emissions of the two- and single- photon transitions of the three-level inverted radiators in the Ξ, V configurations and the system of two-level radiators D, inverted relatively the dipole forbidden transition are revised. This approach opens the new possibilities in the manipulation of the decay process and generation of the entangled photon pairs. The correlation between the V and Ξ cascade three-level subsystems on the two-photon transitions of dipole forbidden radiators is studied, taking into consideration the cooperative scattering and two photon resonances through the vacuum field. One of them corresponds to the situation when the total energy of emitted photons by three level dipole-active radiator in the cascade configuration enters into the two-photon resonance with the dipole-forbidden transitions of second atom. Another effect corresponds to the scattering situation, when the difference of the excited energies of the two dipole-active transitions of V three level radiator are in the resonance with the dipole-forbidden transitions of the second one. These effects are accompanied with the interferences between single- and two-quantum collective transitions of the inverted radiators from the ensemble. The two particle collective decay rate is defined in the description of the atomic correlation functions.
Proc. SPIE. 8411, Advanced Topics in Optoelectronics, Microelectronics, and Nanotechnologies VI
KEYWORDS: Polarization, Scattering, Chemical species, Particles, Single photon, Sodium, Neodymium, Atmospheric particles, Hassium, Correlation function
The resonances between the spontaneous and induced emissions by two- and single photon transitions of three
inverted radiators from the ensemble proposed in paper^{45} open the new possibilities in the manipulation of the
decay rate of the entangled photon pairs generated by the system relative the dipole-forbidden transition. The influence of the bath temperature to such process is studied. One of them corresponds to the situation when the total energy of emitted photons by two dipole-active radiators enter the two-photon resonance with the dipoleforbidden transitions of third atom. Second effect corresponds to the scattering situation, when the difference of the excited energies of two dipole-active radiators are in the resonance with the dipole-forbidden transitions of third atom. These effects are accompanied with the interferences between single- and two-quantum collective transitions of three inverted radiators from the ensemble. The three particle collective decay rate is defined in the description of the atomic correlation functions.
The cooperative nonlinear scattering processes between two resonator modes stimulated by the excited atomic beam,
it is studied. It is demonstrated that these collective scattering phenomena between the Stokes and Anti-Stokes
resonator modes take place due to energy transfer between these fields. The quantum proprieties of Stokes and Anti-
Stokes fluctuations of the photon numbers have been found. The correlation functions between these fields are
expressed through the lasing parameters of the cavity. The experimental scheme of realization of such collective
amplification of Stokes (Anti-Stokes) of photon number is proposed.
An exact analytical approach for studying the time evolution of equidistant system of radiators prepared in a
superposition of states in interaction with single cavity mode it is proposed. This method gives us the possibility to find
the analytical representation of wave function for a large system of atoms.
Exact solution for interaction of four radiators with quantum cavity field is presented. The representation of
cavity field is studied as function of the number of atoms in the system. For odd numbers of radiators was established the
following role: one atom have one quantum Rabi frequency, three atoms have two frequencies; fife atoms- thee nonzero
frequencies. The zero value Rabi frequencies in the system is absent. For even atomic numbers the zero value of Rabi
frequencies appear: two, four, six and so one. In the last case the number of collective level in the system is odd and the
trapping states of the atoms in the cavity are possible.
The application of coherence proprieties of bimodal field in quantum lithography and quantum
holography is proposed. The coherence effect between the photons from Stokes and anti-Stokes waves
generated in Raman lasing emission is established. The application of Stokes and anti-Stokes bimodal
coherent field in lithography and holography are given in according with the definition of amplitude and
phase of such entangled states of light. The optical scheme of holographic representation of object in
bimodal representation is proposed.
The cooperative two-photon scattering processes between two resonator modes
stimulated by the excited atomic beam, it is studied. It is demonstrated that these
collective scattering phenomena between the Stokes and anti-Stokes resonator
modes take place due to energy transfer between these fields. The propriety of
these fields consisted from Stokes and anti-Stokes photon is described by the
Master equation. The numerical solution of this equation describes the statistical
transformation of n-Stokes photons in anti-Stokes photons.
Proc. SPIE. 7297, Advanced Topics in Optoelectronics, Microelectronics, and Nanotechnologies IV
KEYWORDS: Photodetectors, Resonators, Chemical species, Luminescence, Solid state lasers, Optoelectronics, Single photon detectors, Solid state electronics, Pulsed laser operation, Entangled states
The possibility of realization of collective resonance fluorescence of extended systems of atoms in the strong travel and standing laser waves it is demonstrated. The influence of regular arrangement of the atoms in interaction with the laser pulls on the fluorescence intensity is analyzed. Taking in to account that such interference can be realize in two distant atomic ensembles we analyzed the collective interference phenomena between the fluorescent fields in the farther field detection region. These effects depend on the exchange integrals between systems of atoms through vacuum fluorescence field. The fluorescence spectrum of these atoms is found.
About similar coherence interference experiment of spontaneous emission of light from two distant solid-state ensembles of atoms that are coherently excited by a short laser pulse it is reported in the papers [1,2]. For example, in paper [1] it is observed the entanglement between two distant atomic ensembles located in distinct apparatuses on different tables. Quantum interference in the detection of a photon emitted by one of the samples projects the otherwise independent ensembles into an entangled state with one joint excitation stored remotely in 105 atoms at each site. The experiment [2] relate about the ensembles of erbium ions doped into two LiNbO_{3} crystals with channel wave guides, which are placed in the two arms of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The light that is spontaneously emitted after the excitation pulse shows first-order interference. By a strong collective enhancement of the emission, the atoms behave as ideal two-level quantum systems and no which-path information is left in the atomic ensembles after emission of a photon.
Influence of geometry of the sample on the coherent phenomena between two distant systems of atoms in this report is presented.
The be-quanta generation and the coherent process of the light at two-photon emission it's a new type of the coherence which can be realized between pairs of the particles [14]. This possibility of the emission can be realized in the two-photon laser and maser. The first experiments demonstrate this realization [10]. In this paper it is propose a new system of the kinetic equations which describes the non-coherent and be-quanta coherent emission which take into account emissions and the transition from spontaneous to induced emissions in the system. It is studied the rate of the emission as function of this parameters [17]. It is demonstrate mono-photonics losses from the resonator drastically destroy the coherence between the be-photons.
In this paper it is examined the coherence properties among the emitted pairs of entanglement photons and its application
in Communication. It is proposed novel two-photon entangled sources which take into account the coherence and
collective phenomena between the photon pairs. The quantum propriety of realistic sources of powerful coherent biphoton
radiation (coherent entanglement photon pairs) is analysed. The possibility of experimental applications of
coherence between the entangled photons obtained in super-radiance and lasing effects in quantum communications and
cryptography is proposed.
Proc. SPIE. 6785, ROMOPTO 2006: Eighth Conference on Optics
KEYWORDS: Chemical species, Photons, Optical tweezers, Quantum physics, Quantum optics, Chemical elements, Electromagnetism, Rubidium, Commercial off the shelf technology, Tin
A new reversible effect of three-level atom in interaction with quantum bimodal cavity field is proposed. The problem
consists in the possibility of realization of initial separate state of atom and electromagnetic field after flying time
through the cavity field. The discrete values for the flying time interval, which corresponds to the reversibility of the
quantum states, were found. The quantum properties of bimodal field, which satisfy the optical trapping conditions for
the atom flying through the cavity, were studied. The recursion relation for the amplitude of the electromagnetic field in
decompositions on the Fock states was obtained.
The exact solution for the system of three atoms in interaction with microcavity mode of electromagnetic field is
analyzed. The problems of quantum nutation of atomic inversion and entanglement between the cavity field and
collective atomic states are described. The application of this effect in micromasers is discussed. The condition for lasing
and trapping effects is found. The quantum properties of cavity field are studied.
The bi-quanta interaction between the bi-modal cavity electromagnetic field and atomic string consisting of undistinguishable pair of two-level atoms relatively dipole forbidden transition, is studied. The trapping conditions for the flying time of the atoms in cavity are obtained. Moreover, we received the so called cotangent state for the proposed system. The properties of the electromagnetic field for such state are examined. Analyzing the obtained numerical results we concluded that this state exhibits non-classical properties: such as sub-Poissonian statistics, squeezing, or more interestingly, vacuum nutation.
The two-photon generator of coherent light formed from entangled photon pairs is proposed. Considering the multi-mode field of micro-cavity in the processes of generation of photon pairs the two-photon resonator losses are proposed. The master equation for cavity biphotons is obtained from quantum treatment of problem. The analytical and numerical stationary solutions for master equation are presented. Also is found that the lasing of light is started from vacuum fluctuations of cavity field. The comparison of proposed model with other two-photon laser models is discussed.
The effect of enhancing nonlinear generation of entangled photons in the process of interaction of the external coherent electromagnetic field with nonlinear dispersive medium is studied in this paper. Taking into account the second and third order of the susceptibility tensor of the crystal, it is demonstrated that in good cavity approximation the bistable behavior of the two photon generation coefficient as a function of intensity of the pump laser field is possible. This effect is stimulated by decreasing the detuning between the frequency of the cavity mode and pump frequency as a function of an harmonicity terms in polarization.
The cooperative two-photon spontaneous decay of an excited atomic system in a micro-cavity is investigated. We demonstrate that the presence of a small number of thermalized photons in the microcavity mode stimulate the cooperative generation rate of the coherent entangled photon pairs.
We analyze the two-photon cooperative emission of excited atoms in microcavities with dimensions of the order of the emission wavelength. Here the two-photon dipole-forbidden transitions between the upper and the ground states of the three-level system are possible through the intermediate level that is off resonance with microcavity modes. In this situation one obtains the powerful pulse of two-photon highly correlated light. The superbunching phenomenon in radiated field is also discussed.
The present report deals with the condition under which an ensemble of atoms goes over into a regime of collective two-photon nutation, and with the behavior of Rabi frequency as function of external light. To simplify this problem, we consider a system of Λ-type atoms that enters into two-photon resonance with an external squeezed electromagnetic field relative to the forbidden transition ∣1> ∣2> , where ∣1> and ∣2> are ground and first exited states [1,2] The situation is examining, when the values of quantum fluctuations of electromagnetic field intensity have the same value as the mean value of electromagnetic field intensity. This is one of main difference between the our paper and [2]. The proposed mathematical model permits to take into account all the two-photon diagrams. These diagrams describe not only resonance two-photon transitions but two-photon scattering processes between ∣1> and ∣2> levels too. Using mathematical method which is proposed in [1,2] it is obtained the master equation for the atom subsystem. Two stationary solutions for the case when Rabi frequency is larger than the inverse value of the collective two-photon decay time and the case when external light is coherent are examined. It is showing that the absorption rate of an phase squeezed field is larger than the absorption rate of an amplitude squeezed light. We also obtained the behavior of inversion between the levels ∣1> and ∣2>, when the collective of atoms enters into two-photon resonance with external field.
Experimental and theoretical results are presented for the kinetics of photoinduced absorption in chalcogenide glass fibers. Photoinduced absorption measurements were carried out both at room temperature as well as at liquid nitrogen temperature in a wide range of probing light photon energy hw < E_{g}. Experimental results are interpreted on the bases of the model with quasicontinuous distribution of localized states in the gap. Both experimental and theoretical results show that subbandgap light can not only reduced the previously induced absorption but can produce an enhancement of photoinduced absorption also. It is shown, that photoinduced absorption data can be used for determining the parameters of localized states distribution. Computer simulation of photoinduced absorption kinetics shows a good correlation with experimental results.