We present an all-fiber integrated master oscillator power amplifier operating at 1940 nm. The source delivers 422-nJ chirped pulses at a repetition rate of 10.18 MHz corresponding to 4.3 W of average power. The pulses were recompressed down to 900 fs yielding 220 kW of peak power. Stretching the pulse to 200 ps allows further energy scaling beyond the microjoule barrier at low repetition rate (E<sub>p</sub> = 4 μJ at 92 kHz, Δτp =1.6 ps).
New wavelengths of laser radiation are of interest for material processing. Results of application of the all-fiber ultrashort pulsed laser emitting in 2 µm range, manufactured by Novae, are presented. Average output power was 4.35 W in a single-spatial-mode beam centered at the 1950 nm wavelength. Pulses duration was 40 ps, and laser operated at 4.2 MHz pulse repetition rate. This performance corresponded to 25 kW of pulse peak power and almost 1 µJ in pulse energy. Material processing was performed using three different focusing lenses (100, 30 and 18 mm) and mechanical stages for the workpiece translation. 2 µm laser radiation is strongly absorbed by some polymers. Swelling of PMMA surface was observed for scanning speed above 5 mm/s using the average power of 3.45 W focused with the 30 mm lens. When scanning speed was reduced below 4 mm/s, ablation of PMMA took place. The swelling of PMMA is a consequence of its melting due to absorbed laser power. Therefore, experiments on butt welding of PMMA and overlapping welding of PMMA with other polymers were performed. Stable joint was achieved for the butt welding of two PMMA blocks with thickness of 5 mm. The laser was used to cut a Kapton film on a paper carrier with the same set-up as previous. The cut width depended on the cutting speed and focusing optics. A perfect cut with a width of 11 µm was achieved at the translation speed of 60 mm/s.
Chalcogenide or heavy metal oxide glasses are well known for their good transparency in the mid-infrared (MIR)
domain as well as their high nonlinear refractive index (n<sub>2</sub>) tens to hundreds times higher than that of silica. We have
investigated the nonlinear frequency conversion processes, based upon either stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) or
soliton fission and soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) in fibres made up with such highly nonlinear infrared transmitting
glasses. First, SRS has been investigated in a chalcogenide As2S3 step index fibre. In the single pass configuration, under
quasi continuous wave 1550 nm pumping, Raman cascade up to the forth Stokes order has been obtained in a 3 m long
piece of fibre. The possibility to build a Raman laser thanks to
in-fibre written Bragg gratings has also been investigated.
A 5 dB Bragg grating has been written successfully in the core. Then, nonlinear frequency conversion in ultra-short pulse
regime has been studied in a heavy metal oxide (lead-bismuth-gallium ternary system) glass photonic crystal fibre.
Broadband radiation, from 800 nm up to 2.8 μm, has been obtained by pumping an 8 cm long piece of fibre at 1600 nm
in sub-picosecond pulsed regime. The nonlinear frequency conversion process was assessed by numerical modelling
taking into account the actual fibre cross-section as well as the measured linear and nonlinear parameters and was found
to be due to soliton fission and Raman-induced SSFS.
Within the diffusion approximation, we recently showed that the classical measurable quantity models can lead to
significant deviations. Here, we show that the choice of the measurable quantity model can impact significantly
the reconstructions in fluorescence diffuse optical tomography. The problem arises when i) the extrapolated
boundary conditions are used and when ii) low diffusing media are considered.