Segmentation and identification of the vertebrae in CT images are important steps for automatic analysis of the spine. This paper presents an automatic method based on iterative convolutional neural networks. These utilize the inherent order of the vertebral column to simplify the detection problem, so that the network can be trained with as little as ten manual reference segmentations. Vertebrae are segmented and identified one- by-one in sequential order, using an iterative procedure. Vertebrae are first roughly localized and identified in low-resolution images that enable the analysis of context information, and afterwards reanalyzed in the original high-resolution images to obtain a fine segmentation.
The method was trained and evaluated with 15 spine CT scans from the MICCAI CSI 2014 workshop challenge. These scans cover the whole thoracic and lumbar part of the spine of healthy young adults. In contrast to a non-iterative convolutional neural network, which made labeling mistakes, the proposed iterative method correctly identified all vertebrae. Our method achieved a mean Dice coefficient of 0.948 and a mean surface distance of 0.29 mm and thus outperforms the best method that participated in the original challenge.
The amount of calcifications in the coronary arteries is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular events and is used to identify subjects at high risk who might benefit from preventive treatment. Routine quantification of coronary calcium scores can complement screening programs using low-dose chest CT, such as lung cancer screening. We present a system for automatic coronary calcium scoring based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The system uses three independently trained CNNs to estimate a bounding box around the heart. In this region of interest, connected components above 130 HU are considered candidates for coronary artery calcifications. To separate them from other high intensity lesions, classification of all extracted voxels is performed by feeding two-dimensional 50 mm × 50 mm patches from three orthogonal planes into three concurrent CNNs. The networks consist of three convolutional layers and one fully-connected layer with 256 neurons. In the experiments, 1028 non-contrast-enhanced and non-ECG-triggered low-dose chest CT scans were used. The network was trained on 797 scans. In the remaining 231 test scans, the method detected on average 194.3 mm<sup>3</sup> of 199.8 mm<sup>3</sup> coronary calcifications per scan (sensitivity 97.2 %) with an average false-positive volume of 10.3 mm<sup>3</sup> . Subjects were assigned to one of five standard cardiovascular risk categories based on the Agatston score. Accuracy of risk category assignment was 84.4 % with a linearly weighted κ of 0.89. The proposed system can perform automatic coronary artery calcium scoring to identify subjects undergoing low-dose chest CT screening who are at risk of cardiovascular events with high accuracy.