The study of quantum many-body spin physics in realistic solid-state platforms has been a long-standing goal in quantum and condensed-matter physics. We demonstrate separate steps required to reach this goal using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. First, standard (TEM) electron irradiation is used for the enhancement of N to NV conversion efficiencies by over an order-of-magnitude. Second, robust pulsed and continuous dynamical decoupling (DD) techniques enable the preservation of arbitrary states of the ensemble. These combined efforts could lead to the desired interaction-dominated regime. Finally, we simulate the effects of continuous and pulsed microwave (MW) control on the resulting NV-NV many body dynamics in a realistic spin-bath environment. We emphasize that dominant interaction sources could be identified and decoupled by the application of proper pulse sequences, and the modification of such sequences could lead to the creation engineered interaction Hamiltonians. Such interaction Hamiltonians could pave the way toward the creation of non-classical states, e.g. spin-squeezed states, which were not yet demonstrated in the solid-state, and could eventually lead to magnetic sensing beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL).
In this work, we optimize a dynamical decoupling (DD) protocol to improve the spin coherence properties of a dense ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Using liquid nitrogen-based cooling and DD microwave pulses, we increase the transverse coherence time T<sub>2</sub> from ∼ 0.7 ms up to ∼ 30 ms. We extend previous work of single-axis (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) DD towards the preservation of arbitrary spin states. After performing a detailed analysis of pulse and detuning errors, we compare the performance of various DD protocols. We identify that the concatenated XY8 pulse sequences serves as the optimal control scheme for preserving an arbitrary spin state. Finally, we use the concatenated sequences to demonstrate an immediate improvement of the AC magnetic sensitivity up to a factor of two at 250 kHz. For future work, similar protocols may be used to increase coherence times up to NV-NV interaction time scales, a major step toward the creation of quantum collective NV spin states.
KEYWORDS: Signal to noise ratio, Plasmonics, Diamond, Polarization, Magnetism, Sensing systems, Antennas, Magnetic sensors, Quantum physics, Neodymium, Color centers, Stereolithography, Quantum information
Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond have emerged as promising quantum solid-state systems, with applications ranging from quantum information processing to magnetic sensing. One of the most useful properties of NVs is the ability to read their ground-state spin projection optically at room temperature. In this work we consider the eﬀect of the Purcell enhancement on the ability to initialize the NV state and analyze the eﬀect to imperfect initialization on the measurement SNR. We demonstrate that even with feasible initial conditions the combined increase in spontaneous emission (through Purcell enhancement) and in optical excitation could signiﬁcantly increase the readout SNR.