Photons are being treated as both particles and wave. From the postulates of special relativity and inverse square law, it is equally likely for all other charges surrounding a charge to register information about its presence with certain strength irrespective of the distance of separation. A new method of apparent position of charges is being proposed using which photon is treated as a spherical shell of information with its radius increasing at a rate of speed of light. With this approach, the presence of photon at many places at the same time in a double slit experiment can be explained which can also be extended to matter waves. Based on the mutual separation between all charges and relative speeds, this paper discusses the strength of information i.e energy of photon to be registered at each charge, generation of new information after registering old information and its strength. This paper also discusses the factors resulting in attenuation of information while it is propagating, concern on single photon detectors, applications for renewable energy devices and an insight into quantum mechanical and general relativistic aspects of the new approach.
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle explains single slit diffraction1 where maximum is always at the centre. The same
experiment has been conducted but with transparent walls i.e. the material present on either side of the slit, instead of
opaque material. The observed result is a minimum at the centre in between two maximum. It is intuitive that atleast
some photons passed through the slit must end up at the centre of the diffraction pattern but the result is different. The
diffraction pattern occurs as the photons interact with the material around the slit. While uncertainty principle cannot
give quantitative explanation as the photons confined in gap between slits still occupy the same space whether it is
passing through a slit or not. This paper discusses various experiments and results by examining the interactions between
photons and the material of the wall which makes the slit for better understanding of properties of light.
This is the study of relation between thermal and magnetic properties of permanent magnets. The concept of adiabatic demagnetization gives the basic idea on variation in temperature of paramagnetic substances due to the application of magnetic field. With the understanding of adiabatic demagnetization the variations in temperature of ferromagnetic materials can be explained. In both cases, adiabatic demagnetization tells us about conservation of energy. The study on thermal properties of ferromagnetic materials at cryogenic temperatures gives the amount of thermal energy being transferred from or to the surroundings and hence gives the variations in magnetic fields due to temperature changes. As samarium cobalt rare earth permanent magnet do quite well at cryogenic temperatures, this study is much useful in future applications of permanent magnets in space for a renewable energy source. This will enable us to look into the design and working of a device that can convert thermal energy to mechanical energy which leads to thinking of energy conversion without causing harm to our environment. Numerous research works report the successful use of samarium cobalt to temperatures as low as 2 K.