Wide-field interferometric microscopy is a common-path interferometry technique that allows for label-free and high-throughput detection of weakly scattering sub-diffraction-limited biological nanoparticles. Such nanoparticles appear as diffraction-limited-spots in the image and optically resolving them beyond their ‘digital’ detection still remains a challenge owing to the diffraction barrier as well as the typical signal levels that fall below the noise floor. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of computational optics in the interference enhanced nanoparticle imaging to improve its resolving power to obtain structural information on clinically relevant and often complexed-shaped biological nanoparticles such as viruses and exosomes. We consider a spatially incoherent structured illumination based image reconstruction strategy in wide-field interferometric microscopy to achieve high contrast nanoparticle imaging with super-resolution. Our reconstruction technique makes use of the optical transfer function of the system derived via an analytical model based on angular spectrum representation. We provide experimental demonstrations using an artificial sample to quantify the resolution enhancement as well as a biological sample for concept demonstration. We also benchmark the results against gold standard images obtained using an electron microscope. Our highly-sensitive super-resolution imaging system constitutes a noncomplex optical design, which can be realized with simple modifications to a conventional epi-illumination microscope, offering a cost-effective alternative to the laborious and expensive standard high-resolution microscopy techniques. It has a broad spectrum of applications ranging from clinical diagnostics to biotechnological research.
We have demonstrated Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS) with the ability to detect single nanoscale particles. By extending single-particle IRIS to in-liquid dynamic imaging, we demonstrated real-time digital detection of individual viral pathogens as well as single molecules labeled with Au nanoparticles. With this technique we demonstrate real-time simultaneous detection of multiple targets in a single sample, as well as quantitative dynamic detection of individual biomolecular interactions for reaction kinetics measurements. This approach promises to simplify and reduce the cost of rapid diagnostics.
In this paper, we demonstrate utilization of a commercial flatbed document scanner as a label-free biosensor for highthroughput imaging of DNA and protein microarrays. We implemented an interferometric sensing technique through use of a silicon/oxide layered substrate, and easy to implement hardware modifications such as re-aligning moving parts and inserting a custom made sample plate. With a cost as low as 100USD, powered by a USB cable, and scan speed of 30 seconds for a 4mm x 4 mm area with ~10μm lateral resolution, the presented system offers a super low cost, easy to use alternative to commercially available label-free systems.