The market for high power LED solutions is expanding rapidly with the significant efficiency increase of LED chips. This revolutionizes the optoelectronics market, enabling engineers to use LEDs for general lighting applications as well as medical, specialty lighting and automotive solutions, where previously less efficient technologies had to be used. In order to reap the benefits of high power LEDs, however, special requirements concerning thermal management and optomechanical layout have to be met. We will show concepts of thermal management and technological solutions for the choice of different materials and assembly. Furthermore, we will discuss the gain and challenges of chip-on-board solutions using intelligent optical design in specific applications.