A few-mode fiber based detection for OCT systems is presented. The capability of few-mode fibers for delivering light through different fiber paths enables the application of these fibers for angular scattering tissue character- ization. Since the optical path lengths traveled in the fiber change between the fiber modes, the OCT image information will be reconstructed at different depth positions, separating the directly backscattered light from the light scattered at other angles. Using the proposed method, the relation between the angle of reflection from the sample and the respective modal intensity distribution was investigated. The system was demonstrated for imaging ex-vivo brain tissue samples of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
A visible light spectral domain optical coherence microscopy system operating in the wavelength range of 450-680 nm was developed. The resulting large wavelength range of 230 nm enabled an ultrahigh axial resolution of 0.88μm in tissue. The setup consisted of a Michelson interferometer combined with a homemade spectrometer with a spectral resolution of 0.03 nm. Scanning of 1 x 1 mm2 and 0.5 x 0.5 mm2 areas was performed by an integrated microelectromechanical mirror. After scanning the light beam is focused onto the tissue by a commercial objective with a 10 x magnification, resulting in a transverse resolution of 2 μm . Specification measurements showed that a -89 dB sensitivity with a 24 dB/mm roll-off could be achieved with the system. First of all the capabilities of the system were tested by investigating millimeter paper, tape and the USAF (US Air Force) 1951 resolution test target. Finally cerebral tissues from non-pathological and Alzheimer's disease affected brains were investigated. The results showed that structures, such as white and gray matter, could be distinguished. Furthermore a first effort was made to differentiate Alzheimer's disease from healthy brain tissue.