The modeling of the scattering phenomena for the multielement telescope for imaging and spectroscopy (METIS) coronagraph on board the European Space Agency Solar Orbiter is reported. METIS is an inverted occultation coronagraph including two optical paths: the broadband imaging of the full corona in linearly polarized visible-light (580 to 640 nm) and the narrow-band imaging of the full corona in the ultraviolet Lyman-α (121.6 nm). METIS will have the unique opportunity of observing the solar outer atmosphere as close to the Sun as 0.28 AU and from up to 35 deg out-of-ecliptic. The stray-light simulations performed on the UV and VL channels of the METIS analyzing the contributors of surface microroughness, particulate contamination, cosmetic defects, and diffraction are reported. The results obtained with the nonsequential modality of Zemax OpticStudio are compared with two different approaches: the Monte Carlo ray trace with Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP®) and a semianalytical model. The results obtained with the three independently developed approaches are in considerable agreement and show compliance to the requirement of stray-light level for both the UV and VL channels.
The paper describes the wavefront error measurements of the concave ellipsoidal mirrors M1 and M2, of the concave spherical mirror M0 and of the flat interferential filter IF of the Metis coronagraph. Metis is an inverted occultation coronagraph on board of the ESA Solar Orbiter mission providing a broad-band imaging of the full corona in linearly polarized visible-light (580 - 640 nm) and a narrow-band imaging of the full corona in the ultraviolet Lyman α (121.6 nm). Metis will observe the solar outer atmosphere from a close distance to the Sun as 0.28 A.U. and from up to 35deg out-of-ecliptic. The measurements of wavefront error of the mirrors and of the interferential filter of Metis have been performed in a ISO5 clean room both at component level and at assembly level minimizing, during the integration, the stress introduced by the mechanical hardware. The wavefront error measurements have been performed with a digital interferometer for mirrors M0, M1 and M2 and with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for the interferential filter.
Advanced Astronomy for Heliophysics Plus (ADAHELI+) is a project concept for a small solar and space weather mission with a budget compatible with an European Space Agency (ESA) S-class mission, including launch, and a fast development cycle. ADAHELI+ was submitted to the European Space Agency by a European-wide consortium of solar physics research institutes in response to the “Call for a small mission opportunity for a launch in 2017,” of March 9, 2012. The ADAHELI+ project builds on the heritage of the former ADAHELI mission, which had successfully completed its phase-A study under the Italian Space Agency 2007 Small Mission Programme, thus proving the soundness and feasibility of its innovative low-budget design. ADAHELI+ is a solar space mission with two main instruments: ISODY+: an imager, based on Fabry–Pérot interferometers, whose design is optimized to the acquisition of highest cadence, long-duration, multiline spectropolarimetric images in the visible/near-infrared region of the solar spectrum. XSPO: an x-ray polarimeter for solar flares in x-rays with energies in the 15 to 35 keV range. ADAHELI+ is capable of performing observations that cannot be addressed by other currently planned solar space missions, due to their limited telemetry, or by ground-based facilities, due to the problematic effect of the terrestrial atmosphere.
The METIS coronagraph on board the Solar Orbiter mission will have the unique opportunity of observing the solar outer atmosphere as close to the Sun as 0.28 A.U., and from up to 35° out-of-ecliptic. The telescope design of the METIS coronagraph includes two optical paths: i) broad-band imaging of the full corona in linearly polarized visible-light (VL: 580-640 nm), ii) narrow-band imaging of the full corona in the ultraviolet (UV) Lyman α (121.6 nm). This paper describes the stray-light analyses performed on the UV and VL channels of the METIS Telescope with the nonsequential modality of Zemax OpticStudio. A detailed opto-mechanical model of the METIS Telescope is simulated by placing the CAD parts of all the sub-assemblies at the nominal position. Each surface, mechanical and optical, is provided with a modelled coating and BSDF reproducing the optical and the diffusing properties. The geometric model allows for the verification of the correct functioning of the blocking elements inside the telescope and for an evaluation of the stray-light level due to surface roughness. The diffraction off the inner edge of the IEO on the plane of the IO is modelled separately from the contributor of the surface micro-roughness. The contributors due to particle contamination and cosmetic defects are also analysed. The results obtained are merged together and compared to the requirements of stray-light. The results of this analysis together with those from two different analyses based on a Montecarlo ray-trace and a semi-analytical model are consistent with each other and indicate that the METIS design meets the stray-light level requirements
The presented paper shows results and a comparison of FEM numerical simulations and optical tests of the assembly of a precise Zerodur mirror with a mounting structure for space applications. It also shows how the curing of adhesive film can impact the optical surface, especially as regards deformations. Finally, the paper shows the results of the figure quality analysis, which are based on data from FEM simulation of optical surface deformations.
The use of high-resolution imagers for determination of solar-induced fluorescence of natural bodies by observing the infilling
of Fraunhofer lines has been frequently adopted as a tool for vegetation characterization. The option to perform
those measurements from airborne platforms was addressed in the past. In-field observations gave evidence of the main
requirements for an imaging spectrometer to be used for Sun-induced fluorescence measurements such as high spectral
resolution and fine radiometric accuracy needed to resolve the shape of observed Fraunhofer lines with a high level of
accuracy. In this paper, some solutions for the design of a high spectral resolution push-broom imaging spectrometer for
Sun-induced fluorescence measurements are analysed. The main constraints for the optical design are a spectral
resolution better than 0.01 nm and a wide field of view. Due to the fine instrumental spectral resolution, bidimensional
focal plane arrays characterized by high quantum efficiency, low read-out noise, and high sensitivity are requested. The
development of a lightweight instrument is a benefit for aerospace implementations of this technology. First results
coming from laboratory measurements and optical simulations are presented and discussed taking into account their
GIANO is a cryogenic cross-dispersed spectrometer operating at near IR wavelengths (0.9-2.5 microns). The aim of the optical design is to obtain wide spectral coverage, high resolution, large throughput and high spectral stability in a sufficiently compact instrument which can be built and cooled using relatively simple and inexpensive technologies. This ambitious goal is achieved using a 3-mirrors anastigmat in double-pass which acts both as collimator and camera. The collimated beam has a diameter of 100 mm and feeds a commercial 23.2 lines/mm echelle grating. Cross-dispersion is performed by prisms which also operate in double pass. By inserting a flat mirror before the grating, the instrument changes its face (hence the name "GIANO") and transforms into a low resolution spectrometer with a unique combination of spectral coverage, resolution and efficiency.