Lack of corneal transparency is a major cause of blindness worldwide. However, means to assess corneal transparency are limited and in current clinical and eye-bank practice usually involve a subjective and qualitative observation of opacities, sometimes with comparison against an arbitrary grading scale, by means of slit-lamp biomicroscopy. To address this unmet need, we have developed a method for corneal transparency assessment based on a new optical data analysis-based approach. Our method allows the objective extraction of quantitative parameters (including the scattering mean-free path, ls, a major indicator of scattering extent and thus of transparency of a medium) based on a physical model of corneal transparency and has been validated by laboratory experiments, using high-resolution, ex-vivo “fullfield” optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). Here, we apply our algorithm to depth-resolved spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) images of in-vivo corneas and demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by means of four representative clinical cases. Specifically, we illustrate its potential in discriminating between the four clinical cases and, if applicable, deriving the scattering mean-free path as a quantitative measure of corneal transparency from objective analysis of stromal light backscattering (attenuation of the coherent mean) with SD-OCT. This measure may be related to, or expressed as, Strehl ratio reduction and thus retinal PSF broadening. As such, our approach not only has the potential to supply the demand for an objective means to quantify corneal transparency in the clinical setting, but also to create an association with visual function.