A stable far-field and single-mode performance is of great interest for many applications in sensing or communications.
In this contribution an analysis of the far-field stability versus current and temperature is performed
for a long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) emitting around 1310 nm. Furthermore,
the single-mode stability is investigated by means of a technology computer aided design (TCAD) tool.
The electro-opto-thermal multi-dimensional simulations are fully-coupled and use microscopic models. The optical
modes are obtained by solving the vectorial Helmholtz equation, using a finite element approach. The
impact of temperature, free carrier absorption and gain on the refractive index is accounted for. The far-field is
calculated using Green's functions.
The investigated VCSEL features an InP-based cavity with multiple quantum wells and a tunnel junction as well
as wafer-fused AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors.
The comparison of simulated and measured L-I, V-I characteristics and far-field as well as the wavelength-shift
show good agreement for different ambient temperatures as well as driving current values. The simulations reveal
the impact of temperature, gain and carrier effects on the far-field. The design of optical guiding structures
(such as oxides or tunnel junctions) and its impact on the far-field behaviour over ambient temperature and bias
current is discussed.
Various aspects relevant for the commerzialization of VCSELs used in data communications and sensor applications are discussed. In particular, reliability results obtained on selective oxide VCSELs and production reliability assurance procedures are discussed. For typical operating conditions of 50°C and 6 mA we obtain a time to 1% failure of 1.7 Million hours.