We present the methodologies proposed and applied in the context of a teaching-innovation project developed at the University of Granada, Spain. The main objective of the project is the implementation of teaching methodologies that promote the creativity in the learning process and, subsequently, in the acquisition of professional skills. This project involves two subjects related with optics knowledge in undergraduate students. The subjects are “Illumination Engineering” (Bachelor’s degree in Civil-Engineering) and “Optical and Optometric Instrumentation” (Bachelor’s degree in and Optics and Optometry). For the first subject, the activities of our project were carried out in the theoretical classes. By contrast, in the case of the second subject, such activities were designed for the laboratory sessions. For “Illumination Engineering” we applied the maieutic technique. With this method the students were encouraged to establish relationships between the main applications of the subject and concepts that apparently unrelated with the subject framework. By means of several examples, the students became aware of the importance of cross-curricular and lateral thinking. We used the technique based on protocols of control and change in “Optical and Optometric Instrumentation”. The modus operandi was focused on prompting the students to adopt the role of the professionals and to pose questions to themselves concerning the practical content of the subject from that professional role. This mechanism boosted the critical capacity and the independent-learning ability of the students. In this work, we describe in detail both subject proposals and the results of their application in the 2011-2012 academic course.
Reflectance measurements in interurban-road typical pavements are essential for traffic security. The reflectance of interurban-road pavements presents high variability due to such variables as climatic and atmospheric conditions and the presence of foreign materials on the road (e.g. dirt, fuel or oil). For this reason, the recording of real-time measurements for these kinds of pavements is a complex task. However, its critical importance in traffic safety demands precise measurements under all the possible conditions. In this context, the use of remote-sensing systems working in the radar spectral range is of great interest. With active sensors that receive their own radar signal, the reflectance measurements made by the remote-sensing system are not influenced by the atmospheric conditions. In this work, we present a radar-based methodology to develop real-time measurements of the reflectance in typical interurban-road pavements. We are engaged in extending this new method to study the reflectance of interurban-road pavements within the visible spectrum.