The Follow-up X-ray Telescope (FXT), a key payload onboard the Einstein Probe sallite (EP), is equipped with a Wolter-I x-ray focusing mirror system. We introduce the principle of such a mirror system and analyze the influence of the mirror gap in the multishell nested mirror of the FXT on the effective area, stray-light ratio, and vignetting. To ensure that no occlusion occurs within adjacent shells and minimize stray-light ratio, the size of the gap is set to a optimized value for corresponding shell. We finished a design of a 54-shell mirror system according to these results. The optical performance of the design was then simulated using a Monte Carlo algorithm and the ray-tracing principle. The simulation shows that the effective area is 414.5 ± 0.2 cm2 at 1.25 keV (considering the spider), and the field of view is 64 arcmin in diameter. These parameters meet the optical requirements of the FXT.
The Einstein Probe (EP) is an X-ray astronomical mission mainly devoting to time-domain astronomy. There are two main scientific payloads onboard EP, the Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WXT) based on the lobster eye optics and the Follow-up X-ray Telescope (FXT). FXT contains two Wolter-1 mirrors with a pnCCD detector on each focus. The total effective area is about 600 cm2 and the energy range is 0.3-10 keV. The pnCCD detector cooled by a pulse tube cooler enables high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging combined with excellent time resolution. It will also have several working modes with time resolution ranging from tens of microseconds to 50 milliseconds. Currently, the FXT is in its qualification model phase. The mirror assemblies (STM and TCM) as well as the pnCCD EM module have been manufactured and tested.
The eXTP (enhanced X-Ray Timing and Polarimetry) mission is a Chinese science space mission developed in collaboration with many international countries. Devoted to observations in the X-ray band, with imaging, spectroscopic, timing and polarimetry capabilities, is now entering phase B. The payload includes 9 Spectroscopic Focusing Array (SFA) and 4 Polarimetry Focusing Array (PFA) telescopes. The SFA telescopes, equipped with SDDs, have a spatial resolution of 1 arcmin, while the PFA telescopes, equipped with imaging gas pixel photoelectric polarimeters, have a spatial resolution of 30 arcsec. Both optics work in the 0.5-10 keV range with a focal length of 5.25 m and a field of view of 12 arcmin. The technology used for the optics production is Nickel electroforming from super-polished mandrels, like many previous successful X-ray missions. The reflecting coating is a double layer Au+C, which ensures optimal response at high and low energies. The PFA and SFA have the same optical design, in order to minimize the number of mandrels to be produced. In this paper, we present the optical design of these telescopes assisted with raytracing and a preliminary concept for the mechanical design supported by FEM simulation.
Glass preparing and integrating technologies are important in construction of grazing incidence optics, and these vital process are corresponding to the concentrating efficiency directly. Thermal slump glass under pressure supplied by stainless cloth with mass has been shown in this paper, and we obtained a below 1 nm roughness by coating Ir on slump glass segments. Then, A novel 6 dimensional integrating system for grazing incidence optics was developed to assemble all segments together, carbon ribs and epoxy were applied in the integrating process to make fragile glass segments stable. Finally, a glass-carbon-epoxy structure grazing incidence optics was developed and focal spot with diameter of 6 mm was obtained with parallel light. This kind of grazing incidence optics is supposed to concentrate large area X-ray photons to small area for reducing cost on space applications.
X-ray grazing incidence optics are widely used in X-ray astronomy, especially for imaging payloads Wolter optics are the most workhorse. However, as there are two cascaded mirrors in Wolter type, the efficiency is quite low after two reflections. In this paper a kind of nested conical concentrator is developed with only one reflection to concentrate the X-ray photons and obtain the timing information. The mirror length is 200mm, the mirror foils cover from 38.8 to 100mm in diameter. D263T glass of 0.3mm thickness is used as mirror substrate with Iridium film deposited in order to improve the X-ray reflection. The D263T glass is slumped at 580°C with precisely machined and polished mold. 3D printed resin serves as upper mold for glass cutting. The quality of mirror substrate is mainly determined by the surface of forming mandrel. As the surface roughness is quite important for X-ray reflection, after deposition it is tested with interferometer and AFM, and the roughness is 0.6nm. Mirror integration based on visible light is built, and the conical mirrors are assembled and adjusted by real time monitoring for the focal point of visible light. With the monochromic X-ray source, the concentrator efficiency is tested as email@example.comV, firstname.lastname@example.orgV. The focal point is Φ8.2mm in Xray, with 80% of its energy encircled in a 4mm width. This kind of X-ray concentrator could be used in X-ray navigation, X-ray communication and other X-ray timing astronomy.