Laser produced plasma (LPP) systems have been developed as the primary approach for use in EUV scanner light sources for optical imaging of circuit features at 20nm nodes and beyond. This paper provides a review of development progress and productization status for LPP extreme-ultra-violet (EUV) sources with performance goals targeted to meet specific requirements from ASML. We present the latest results on power generation and collector
protection for sources in the field operating at 10W nominal power and in San Diego operating in MOPA (Master Oscillator Power Amplifier) Prepulse mode at higher powers. Semiconductor industry standards for reliability and source availability data are provided. In these proceedings we show results demonstrating validation of MOPA Prepulse operation at high dose-controlled power: 40 W average power with closed-loop active dose control meeting the requirement for dose stability, 55 W average power with closed-loop active dose control, and early collector
protection tests to 4 billion pulses without loss of reflectivity.
Laser-produced plasma sources offer the best option for scalability to support high-throughput lithography. Challenges associated with the complexity of such a source are being addressed in a pilot program where sources have been built and integrated with extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) scanners. Up to now, five pilot sources have been installed at R&D facilities of chip manufacturers. Two pilot sources are dedicated to product development at our facility, where good dose stability has been demonstrated up to levels of 32 W of average EUV power. Experimental tests on a separate experimental system using a laser prepulse to optimize the plasma conditions or EUV conversion show power levels equivalent to approximately 160 W within a low duty-cycle burst, before dose control is applied. The overall stability of the source relies on the generation of Sn droplet targets and large EUV collector mirrors. Stability of the Sn droplet stream is well below 1 μm root mean square during 100+ h of testing. The lifetime of the collector is significantly enhanced with improved coatings, supporting uninterrupted operation for several weeks.
Laser produced plasma (LPP) systems have been developed as the primary approach for the EUV scanner
light source for optical imaging of circuit features at sub-22nm and beyond nodes on the ITRS roadmap. This
paper provides a review of development progress and productization status for LPP extreme-ultra-violet
(EUV) sources with performance goals targeted to meet specific requirements from leading scanner
manufacturers. We present the latest results on exposure power generation, collection, and clean transmission
of EUV through the intermediate focus. Semiconductor industry standards for reliability and source
availability data are provided. We report on measurements taken using a 5sr normal incidence collector on a
production system. The lifetime of the collector mirror is a critical parameter in the development of extreme
ultra-violet LPP lithography sources. Deposition of target material as well as sputtering or implantation of
incident particles can reduce the reflectivity of the mirror coating during exposure. Debris mitigation
techniques are used to inhibit damage from occuring, the protection results of these techniques will be shown
over multi-100's of hours.
This paper describes the development of laser-produced-plasma (LPP) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) source
architecture for advanced lithography applications in high volume manufacturing. EUV lithography is
expected to succeed 193 nm immersion technology for sub-22 nm critical layer patterning. In this paper we
discuss the most recent results from high qualification testing of sources in production. Subsystem
performance will be shown including collector protection, out-of-band (OOB) radiation measurements,
and intermediate-focus (IF) protection as well as experience in system use. This presentation reviews the
experimental results obtained on systems with a focus on the topics most critical for an HVM source.
Laser produced plasma (LPP) systems have been developed as a viable approach for the EUV scanner light sources to
support optical imaging of circuit features at sub-22nm nodes on the ITRS roadmap. This paper provides a review of
development progress and productization status for LPP extreme-ultra-violet (EUV) sources with performance goals
targeted to meet specific requirements from leading scanner manufacturers. The status of first generation High Volume
Manufacturing (HVM) sources in production and at a leading semiconductor device manufacturer is discussed. The
EUV power at intermediate focus is discussed and the lastest data are presented. An electricity consumption model is
described, and our current product roadmap is shown.
Laser-based technologies have played an important role in manufacturing of hard disk drives. The applications include disk texturing, precision bending of the suspension, precision adjust of the shape of the slider carrying the magnetic read/write head and protection against electrostatic discharge (ESD) in the read/write heads. Disk texturing allows one to reduce slider/disk stiction during contact by producing bumps only a few nanometers high and a few microns in diameter at the landing zone of the disk. Laser bending of the suspension allows one to precisely control gram load, the pre-load force with which the slider is pushed towards the disk, as well as the pitch and roll static attitudes of the slider, which strongly influence its flying characteristics. Laser crown adjust helps control slider flatness to within a few nanometers, with high precision and predictability. These technologies allow one to reduce both the mean and the tolerance of slider/disk spacing, thus effectively enabling higher magnetic recording densities. Laser technology helps to protect the sensitive magnetic read head against electrostatic discharge by allowing one to put an electrical short on the head during most of the part's handling, then removing it using a sharply focussed laser beam during final stages of drive assembly. Laser technology, with its ability to process small areas with precision positioning, being contact free and hence largely contamination free and being able reach areas with optical fibers not easily accessible by mechanical means is ideally suited for these manufacturing processes. In this paper we review the physical mechanisms underlying these technologies and possible future applications of lasers in disk drive manufacturing.
Microscopic bumps of heights being tens of nm can be produced on a smooth nickel-phosphorus disk substrate using Q-switched laser pulses from a diode-pumped laser. This technique is being used in the manufacture of high-end disk drives where tens of thousands of such bumps are produced to form a dedicated landing-zone racetrack for the magnetic head to land and takeoff without stiction.