Fraunhofer IPMS has developed a one-dimensional high-speed spatial light modulator in cooperation with Micronic
Mydata AB. This SLM is the core element of the Swedish company’s new LDI 5sp series of Laser-Direct-Imaging
systems optimized for processing of advanced substrates for semiconductor packaging. This paper reports on design,
technology, characterization and application results of the new SLM. With a resolution of 8192 pixels that can be
modulated in the MHz range and the capability to generate intensity gray-levels instantly without time multiplexing, the
SLM is applicable also in many other fields, wherever modulation of ultraviolet light needs to be combined with high
throughput and high precision.
The Fraunhofer IPMS, in cooperation with Micronic Laser Systems, develops and fabricates micromirror arrays used as
spatial light modulators (SLM) for image generation in microlithography. The SLMs used consist of 2048×512
individually addressable micromirrors of 16×16μm<sup>2</sup> and can be operated in an analog mode at a frame rate of up to
2 kHz. There are continued efforts to improve the performance of the mask writers with respect to stability and CD
uniformity, which include measures to improve the SLMs used, especially with respect to the optical quality and the
Therefore, a new technology has been introduced which allows to use different materials for the mechanical suspension
and the mirror, thus optimizing them separately. The hinges are made of a thin layer of a material with very good creep
resistance, while the mirrors consist of a thick aluminium alloy with high reflectivity in DUV. Furthermore, the same
inorganic material is used for the planarization of the electrodes (by means of chemical mechanical polishing) and as
sacrificial layer for the actuator fabrication. Thus, at the end of the process, all sacrificial material, including that
between the electrodes is removed. In this way, the charging effects caused by dielectrics between the electrodes (as seen
in the previous devices) are eliminated.
The first devices using the technology described above have been fabricated and tested. The first tests in a lithography
machine show that considerable improvements in machine performance can be expected. The next steps are to stabilize
and optimize the process.
The present article discusses steps for the realistic description of optical properties of micro-mirror arrays (MMA),
which are utilized as programmable masks for microlithography. The article focuses on global contrast as an
elementary example for the understanding of MMA's diffractive operation principle. Central point will be a
discussion of those MEMS properties that influence the global MMA contrast, and how to introduce them into
simulation. Surface corrugations of single mirrors and slit properties will be taken into account. Comparison is
made with experimental contrast data to validate the theoretical assumptions.
Airborne molecular contamination (AMC) in the form of bases, acids and condensable organic and inorganic substances threaten both costly and sensitive optics and mask pattern formation in the chemically amplified resists (CAR) used for both E-beam and laser lithography. This is particularly so for mask pattern generators due to the relatively long writing times. In the development work of the SLM-based DUV-laser mask pattern generator Sigma7300, AMC aspects have been taken into consideration from an early stage. That includes <i>e.g.</i> analysis and selection of construction materials and development of handling methods as well as application of chemical filtering systems. Tool manufacturer and filter supplier have together specified and designed efficient hybrid filtration systems for use in Sigma7300. This paper describes AMC aspects specific for mask pattern generators, the successful design actions of the Sigma7300 and verifying analyses of the processes.
This paper treats a for the semiconductor industry somewhat different application: The first-ever manufacture of Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE’s) as directly written multilevel diffractive micro-reliefs using the DUV SLM-based Sigma7300 Mask. The reliefs were manufactured in the DUV Chemically Amplified Resist (CAR) FEP-171. This particular application is of direct interest since DOE’s are already incorporated in the Sigma7300 system. The design and manufacture are demonstrated with (1.) A Fan-out element and (2.) A logotype generator. The first attempts, reported here, resulted in a Fan-out element with diffraction efficiency of 64% compared to the theoretical design of 88%.